adrian kasperski

island of the future

island-of-the-future

source: archdaily
A Bienal de Veneza de 2016 destacou que lidar com desastres naturais pode se tornar uma das maiores preocupações da arquitetura. Mas a natureza tem suas próprios modos de destruição e erupções vulcânicas estão entre os casos mais extremos. Na Ilha do Fogo, o Parque Natural do Fogo, projetado pelo escritório OTO – e eleito como Melhor Edifício do Ano de 2015 pelos leitores do ArchDaily – foi destruído por uma corrente de lava fundida pouco mais de um ano após sua inauguração em 2013. O edifício, que conciliava centro cultural e atividades administrativas, ajudou a ativar a economia na área mais remota da ilha. Depois do desastre, Adrian Kasperski, um estudante da Krakow University, dedicou sua dissertação de mestrado para reabilitar esta área, propondo a expansão das rodovias existentes e trilhas de escalada e desenvolvendo equipamentos para implementar alternativas oferecidas pelo turismo.

Kasperski primeiramente percebeu que o norte da ilha carecia de acessos por estradas. Estender a estrada existente ao norte iria contribuir para o desenvolvimento econômico da ilha e ajudaria a diminuir o tráfego ao sul. O projeto também sugere acessos aprimorados às crateras por meio de trilhas. Considerando que o projeto de OTO fica na cratera próxima ao vilarejo, Kasperski decidiu realocar as atividades do topo do vulcão para proteger das erupções. Em sua proposta, o centro cultural e antigo vilarejo estão localizados ao norte das crateras, além disso, um hotel e vinícola também foram propostos ao sul da estrada.

Talvez o centro cultural seja a parte mais interessante do projeto. Assim como o anterior de OTO, o estabelecimento foi desenvolvido de acordo com a topografia local. Localizado no limite de duas paisagens bastante distintas, “o edifício parece invisível a uma certa distância”, explica Kasperski, “apenas ao se aproximar, uma pequena fração da caldeira começa a surgir”. Assim como na Universidade Ewha Womans, de Dominique Perrault, o edifício apresenta uma praça pública, escadarias e área de permanência no centro. As fachadas de vidro ao longo da praça trazem luz natural para dentro da edificação que permanece quase que totalmente térrea. Além do mais, a esguia praça emoldura uma vista do vulcão, que é complementada pelo uso de uma cobertura com aberturas.
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source: archdaily
从废墟上崛起:克拉科夫大学生创建的福戈火山岛愿景规划, © Adrian Kasperski © Adrian Kasperski
在2016年威尼斯双年展上特别强调了如何应对自然灾害可能会成为建筑的未来主要的当务之急之一。但由于自然有其独特的破坏方式,就以火山爆发作为一个最极端的例子。在福戈岛(佛得角),由OTO建筑事务所设计的自然公园管理大楼 – 被Archdaily读者评选为2015年度最佳建筑 – 该建筑在2013年开业后仅一年就受到了火山熔岩的侵袭,这是一个集文化中心和行政事物结合在一起的综合性建筑,主要是用来帮助岛上偏远地区的经济发展。随着这些灾难的发生,就读于克拉科夫大学的学生 Adrian Kasperski,在他自己的硕士论文中,以该地区的重建为主题,提出了对现有道路和旅游线路的扩建计划和设施规划,从而改善这里独特的旅游资源。

在设计中,Kasperski首先注意到的是该岛北部道路交通匮乏问题。因此他决定将现有道路向北进行扩建,这将有助于该岛的经济发展,并有助于缓解南部的交通状况。同时该项目还对通向火山口的旅游通道进行了改进。而由OTO建筑事务所设计的项目就在火山口旁边的村庄里,Kasperski为保护它免受喷发火山的侵害决定对它的外围进行搬迁。在他的建议中,文化中心和前村被放在了火山口的北面,另外一个酒店和酿酒厂位于路的南面。

文化中心也许是该项目最有趣的部分。它是由OTO建筑事务所设计,所有的设施都是根据当地的地形进行规划。它位于两种截然不同的风景边上,“该建筑似乎从远处看不见”,Kasperski解释说,“只有当人接近时,才能看到留下轻微的划痕”,就像多米尼克·佩罗设计的Ewha女子大学,大楼内有一个公共广场,在中间有台阶和休息区。光线可以从沿着广场的玻璃幕墙照射进来。此外,这条狭长的广场还设置了观测点来欣赏火山,它还采用了槽形屋顶。

对于酿酒厂和酒店,Kasperski也是把当地的地形作为设计的核心。而对它们并没有采用完全的地下结构。大楼设有一个低层结构 – 这已经由OTO证明过了,它非常适合现有的景观。这种形式在地面上提高了一块,形成了一侧的水平块,其形状和斜率与岩石火山口一致。

在火山口的北面,需要重建村庄安顿在火山喷发之前搬离的居民。这个村庄位于岛上最偏远的地区,需要受到保护。项目包括公共设施——一所学校,一个市场和一个教堂,还有道路交通网络,灌溉沟渠和主题馆。Kasperski利用地形线来定义街道,并沿着山坡随着地势的升高设计住房。

设计的重点是在地面上,通过分析地形,设计了一个现代流行的建筑形式,该项目由建筑师扎哈·哈迪德启动。在文化中心,Kasperski的设计解释了历史学家Andrea Ruby 所说的“膨胀。”“它取代了作为物体放在地上的各种功能,”Ruby解释说道,“它就像被注入了液体一样,并且提高了地面到到天花板之间的高度,在这个过程中创建了一个人造地形。”[1]

文化中心的人工地形和非传统形式的酒厂和酒店都依靠高科技技术。村里的公共基础设施和住房似乎同样远离台湾的经济现实。建议加强台湾经济,从自然灾害中恢复过来是受欢迎的;然而,尽管Kasperski提供了一个有趣的故事,可以让我们梦想他的愿景,为福岛和任何类似的想法,可能会暂时仍假设。

但是,人们可能会怀疑在岛上能否使用这些必要的材料和施工工艺。在这块自然公园里,OTO建筑事务所用水泥和火山灰砌成了黑色的体块。包括屋顶也用火山灰砌成,从而将建筑与周围环境相融合。事实上,在这样的贫困地区使用这些可用的资源是非常必要的。相反,Kasperski并没有指定任何当地的材料。文化中心及其人造地形和酿酒厂以及酒店以其标新立异的形式都依靠了高科技技术。村里的公共基础设施和住房条件同样远离该岛的经济现实。因此建议加强该岛的经济发展,并尽快从自然灾害中恢复过来是深受广大民众欢迎的;因此Kasperski提供了一个这样好的方案,可以让我们的梦想完成他的愿景,但作为福古岛的任何类似想法,目前都还是假设。
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source: designboom
adrian kasperski’s first impulse for choosing a future work topic was seeing one of the reports by fernando guerra–a famous portuguese photographer of architecture. the photos presented an almost unnoticeable building hidden in a nearly lunar landscape. after analysing the topic, it turned out that this building served as the cultural and administration centre of the national park of the fogo island in cape verde and was located inside an active volcano. curiously enough, the design team had discovered there a local community of more than 1,000 people, who illegally inhabited and tilled the ground in the nationally protected areas.

the architecture of the building can only be admired on photographs these days as the building functioned only for a year. in the wake of a volcanic eruption in november 2014, it was completely destroyed. hundreds of people from the nearby village chã das caldeiras were forced to abandon their homes.

envisioned by adrian kasperski, the project aims to develop three different structures. the first one is the centre of culture and volcanism that is a continuation of the activity of the facility destroyed during the eruption. the chosen location is on the border of two entirely different landscapes. the project was treated as an opportunity to create a connection between the inside and outside of the island. the building seems invisible from a distance and only when one approaches closer, a slight cut in the caldera starts to emerge. the entire cubature has been hidden underground. an important element is a public area which not only makes up for the entrance to the interior but also serves as a multifunctional square. along with high glazing on the sides and slotted roof above, it frames the views of the volcano located precisely on the axis.

the next phase is a facility that combines in itself the functions of the vineyard and the hotel, which result from a desire to activate the area (based on the phenomenon of the alternative tourism) and to use the grape vine cultivation tradition. the ramps, which are the extension of the trail, lead people in the observation deck, which offers a magnificent panoramic view of the insides of the caldera, of the volcano and the outside of the island. the whole refers to the terrain form–the view results from the topography, where the facility is located. on one hand the form is slightly raised above the ground level, forming a horizontal block, on the other hand, it is embedded in the rocky slope of the rising caldera. the central part was designed to be a generally accessible square. this solution allowed the consistent combination of the two functions.

the last intervention would be building a new village–creating a place which the community, separated by the volcano, could once again inhabit. the village was located near the new northern road to caldera. in order to minimise the impact of the road on the living conditions in the village, the park, which adjoins the main square of the village, has been designed. in its vicinity have been located the most important facilities such as a school, a market and a church. the whole is complemented by a network of alleys, irrigation canals and theme pavilions. based on the natural terrain and the layout of the streets, the houses have been designed as cascaded, hillside buildings. the space behind the houses has been used as a place that could serve as orchards or vegetable gardens, on which residents could produce their own products.

the vision of the development of the fogo island along with the active volcano caldera is a very complex project because it combines the cultural issues, social issues, nature and architecture. the aim was not to create the building itself, but analysing the relations and processes of the human environment and interpreting it into the language of architecture. according to fabrizio barozzi from estudio barozzi veiga, ‘architecture can generate certain positive changes in the community for which it is built.‘