SIMON STARLING

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西蒙·斯塔林
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Inverted Retrograde Theme

source: worldclassboxingorg

In Simon Starling’s Inverted Retrograde Theme, USA (House for a Songbird), (2002), two scale models of prefabricated single-family houses are pinned to a ceiling by tree branches. The pair is a onefifth- scale recreation of two real houses that sit side by side in the town of Bayomon outside San Juan, Puerto Rico. The houses were built in the 1960s as part of a housing development financed by the New York–based Rockefeller Foundation. One of the Foundation’s postwar philanthropic efforts (now mothballed) in developing countries, the project was intended to provide impetus for the foundation of locally driven capitalist ventures. In Puerto Rico this goal gave rise to a large-scale and idealistically designed low-cost housing scheme. Starling’s models are made of distressed plywood girdled by wrought-iron filigree screens, and they replicate how the houses look today. Noticeably, one also acts as a birdcage that holds two tropical songbirds.

Starling’s works transcribe circular, peripatetic, and uncanny pathways. While researching the Vienna-born Modernist musician Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951) for the piece Inverted Retrograde Theme (2001) at the Vienna Secession, Starling became interested in the work of the lesser-known Austrian architect Simon Schmiderer (1911–2001). Schmiderer had been influenced by Schoenberg’s serialist techniques, and he attempted to incorporate its musical principles into the production of his buildings. This led Starling to the housing tract in Puerto Rico, which Schmiderer had been commissioned in 1952 to design and oversee.

Schmiderer is perhaps best known for the motto “One house in one hour.” He was a faithful modernist who believed that housing which didn’t sacrifice principled aesthetics could be quickly and affordably produced. Like many of his generation he was indebted to Mies van der Rohe, and the open planning of Mies’s Barcelona Pavilion influences the Bayomon designs. The Puerto Rican houses were built from concrete blocks and omitted doors and glass windows to further integrate inside and out. The omission also cheapened the construction while taking into account the exigencies of the prevailing heat. What Schmiderer failed to imagine was a phenomenal rise in the local crime rate in the 1970s — and how miserably his houses would provide security for their owners. Since then residents have been forced to adapt, and the iron screens around the circumference of Starling’s houses are faithful copies of the elaborate barriers that have been erected in Puerto Rico to guard against intrusion.

It’s common in Puerto Rican households to have birdcages, and the finches in Inverted Retrograde USA hint at the irony of enclosing a shelter designed principally for its lack of barriers. The songbirds also return viewers tangentially to the allusive musical metaphors that echo through the piece. Schmiderer’s understanding of Schoenberg’s twelve-tone compositions influenced his faith in the ability to assemble a house under rigorous logic, restricted to the most basic building materials. In twelve-tone composition, hierarchies between notes are abandoned, and the tones on the chromatic scale are treated with equal privilege. Under Schoenberg’s design, therefore, a composer had a limited set of musical techniques with which to give music expressive range. One is the “Inversion,” which turns a tone row upside-down: if the original has a rising tone the inversion is falling. Another is the “Retrograde” which is a tone row played backward in relation to the original; while the “Inverted Retrograde” combines the two techniques.
Schmiderer’s fascination with Schoenberg led to his application of the retrograde principle in his designs for #2 and #4 Calle Victoria, the Bayomon houses replicated in Starling’s work. Each is a mirror image of the other, and Starling pursues the musical logic by turning his models on their head. Supporting them are pieces of tropical wood — mahogany branches that also come from Central America. The branches add a modest note to a work that questions the relationship between the utopian aspirations of European modernity and its many ongoing failures — minor to catastrophic — not least those caused by an ignorance and dismissal of local vernaculars.
Both Simon Schmiderer and Arnold Schoenberg left Austria in the 1930s for the United States, Schmiderer for New York, Schoenberg for Hollywood. On his arrival in Los Angeles, Schoenberg resorted to teaching music to earn a living, and many of his students went on to write for the movies. While Schoenberg’s atonality has endured almost universal derision for its “unlistenablity,” it found an unlikely home in late 1930s Hollywood melodramas because its techniques could “bluntly indicate anxiety or otherwise extreme emotional states.”1 Like Schmiderer’s houses in Puerto Rico, this colloquial adaptation might have been difficult for its creator to envisage, as are the unpredictable ends to which any creative work may be adapted and employed. These detours are intrinsic to the geographies that Simon Starling maps, and his tracings of the interconnectivity between disparate modes of endeavor resonate with the bewilderment of discovering where paths, sometimes fantastically, lead.
1. Douglas, Stan in Stan Douglas, Editions du Centre Pompidou, Paris, 1993, p. 137

SIMON STARLING was born in Epsom, England, and lives in Glasgow. He was a 2004 nominee for the Hugo Boss Prize and recently had solo exhibitions at Miro Foundation, Barcelona; Art Statements, Art/33/Basel; Villa Arson, Nice; and the UCLA Hammer Museum, Los Angeles. Starling was also in the 2004 São Paolo Bienalle, Brazil and represented Scotland in the 2003 Venice Bienniale.
REID SHIER is a curator at the Power Plant Contemporary Art Gallery in Toronto, Canada. He has curated recent solo exhibitions of Stan Douglas, Dan Graham, and Martin Boyce, and is working on forthcoming shows with Joëlle Tuerlinckx, Geoffrey Farmer, and Michael Elmgreen & Ingar Dragset.
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source: artdailyorg

Simon Schmiderer, a faithful modernist, was best known for his “serial” housing, his motto being “one house in one hour.” He was the architect for the extensive residential building project in Puerto Rico during the 1960s, basing his designs on pre-formed, inexpensive, concrete modules with ample open windows, omitting glass to “integrate” the interior and exterior. The wire mesh around the houses represents the security measures the actual inhabitants of the project in Puerto Rico took to maintain their safety in the high-crime area, as the original architectural plan dismissed the inhabitants’ practical needs, and was comprised of all open spaces with no security.

The sound of singing birds coming from inside the seemingly caged homes completes the startling visual metaphor. The architect adapted the composer’s serialist techniques in his work, and Starling illustrates this idea into the installation by mirroring the structures. The title for the installation is derived from Schonberg’s compositional system which can be played as “original,” “inverted,” “retrograde” or “inverted retrograde.” Aspects of inversion and translocation (characteristic for twelve-tone music) were added to offer a new perspective of the modernist idea. Starling takes Schoenberg’s ideas further by flipping the houses upside down and pinning them to the ceiling, each balanced by one thin mahogany branch. By transforming objects and transferring them to different contexts and materials, Starling questions their original intent, bringing to light the complexities of realizing utopian aspirations in the modern world.
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source: newsartinternnet

重要英国艺术家与2005年特纳奖得主西蒙·斯塔林(Simon Starling,1967年生),将为英国泰特美术馆2013委派项目创作一件由苏富比赞助的重要新项目作品。这一年度委派项目每年都会邀请艺术家来创作作品以响应泰特美术馆的英国艺术与国际艺术收藏。斯塔林特别为英国泰特美术馆中心的新古典主义杜维恩展馆而创作的宏大的新装置作品,将于2013年3月11日揭幕。

  西蒙·斯塔林一直沉迷于人造事物产生的方式,小到粗陋的棚屋,大到一辆菲亚特汽车或一张弗朗西斯·培根的桌子,都能吸引到他。在他的艺术作品中,物体都是被改造过的,或是经过了史诗般的旅程,亦或是被操控,以展露它们各自丰富迷人的被制造经历和它们所体现的经济地理关系网。这种质变的过程,在影像、照片和装置中达到了高潮。

  对于获得2005年特纳奖的作品《棚船棚》(ShedboatShed),斯塔林拆了莱茵河岸边的一个木棚屋,把它改造成了一个当地很典型的船,然后乘坐着它在欧洲各大河流中漂流。最后,这艘船又被重新组装成了一个棚屋,并在一个博物馆进行了展出。棚屋航行所体现的劳动密集型的特质,和过程的循环性,同时的诗意与荒诞,都是斯塔林作品的特征。

  斯塔林的许多艺术项目都拿艺术史和艺术机构作为了出发点。亨利·摩尔就曾是斯塔林作品《被侵染的作品(带贻贝的摩尔》(Infestation Piece (Musselled Moore)(2006-2008年)的灵感来源。亨利·摩尔雕塑《拿盾牌的武士》(Warrior with Shield,1953-1954年)的一件复制品被浸泡在了安大略湖里长达18个月,之后它变成了外面沾有许多贻贝的的一件作品。当西方和苏联在20世纪80年代开始进行贸易的时候,很小的贻贝就附着在船只外壳上被偶然地从黑海运到了加拿大湖。这里,它们成为了摩尔作为冷战期间进行创作的一位艺术家的综合地位的象征。

2010年,为了艺术项目“同样的河(可能的未来,可能的过去)”【The Same River(Possible Futures, Probable Pasts)】,斯塔林重新把30位艺术家与设计师的作品放置在了卡姆登艺术中心。在该美术馆50多年历程当中,全部被展出过的所有艺术品,都被重新摆放在了他们原来展出时被放置的确切位置。它们的大集合,粉碎了线性时间的概念。
  西蒙·斯塔林说,“对我而言,承接一个像杜维恩展馆这样的空间,意味着进入到了一种占领区,也就是一个已经填满了来自于过去的图像和概念的地方。就是在这种历史的困境当中,我才希望形成委托任务。”

  英国泰特美术馆总监佩内洛普·柯蒂斯(Penelope Curtis)补充说道,“因为知道斯塔林在用博物馆建筑和藏品进行创作的兴趣,所以,当他接受了用我们的建筑与藏品进行创作的邀请后,我们别提有多高兴了!”
  苏富比欧洲区当代艺术总负责人夏安·韦斯特法尔(Cheyenne Westphal)对此评价道,“赞助泰特的第六年,是苏富比无比自豪的源头。我们对英国泰特美术馆委托项目持续的赞助,使得一位英国当代艺术家的作品,将会在2013年呈现在这个全球公认的平台上。”

  生活在哥本哈根并在那里从事创作的西蒙·斯塔林,出生于1967年,曾在梅德斯通艺术学院、诺丁汉特伦特理工学院和格拉斯哥艺术学院学习过摄影和艺术。他近期已经分别在泰特圣艾夫斯美术馆和哥本哈根的肯斯特尔夏洛滕贝里举办了个展。
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source: artist99ys

西蒙·斯塔林(Simon Starling ) 1967年出生于英国爱普瑟姆,是英国著名的年轻观念艺术家,现在格拉斯哥生活工作,从格拉斯哥艺术学校毕业后,斯塔林在格拉斯哥和柏林之间游走,虽然在英国办过几次个展,但更多的展览还在英国以外。“通常我的观众很少,但他们见多识广,在这点上和其他艺术家的观众不同……”他说,“我决定在本周飞回柏林,回到工作室。” 从格拉斯哥艺术学校毕业后,斯塔林在格拉斯哥和柏林之间游走,虽然在英国办过几次个展,但更多的展览还在英国以外。“通常我的观众很少,但他们见多识广,在这点上和其他艺术家的观众不同……”他说,“我决定在本周飞回柏林,回到工作室。”  

 斯塔林说,他曾经有个梦想,在罗梦湖(LochLomond)创造一个漂浮的杜鹃花岛屿,这个观念艺术项目关注移民、避难和关押。彭土杜鹃花(rhododendronponticum)最先源自西班牙南部,但繁殖力超强,已成为苏格兰最严重的入侵物种,政府花费了大量金钱试图把它从苏格兰根除。“但是这个主意无法实施,因为该项目的一部分赞助来自苏格兰国家遗产基金。人们忽然意识到苏格兰国家遗产基金既然花费了500万英镑根除这些杜鹃,怎么又出现一个主意要花钱再开辟一个地方让它们自由成长?于是只好作罢。”斯塔林因此对英国备感失望。
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source: artdacn

简历:
Simon Starling ,1967年出生于英国的Surrey,是英国著名的年轻观念艺术家,2005年他获得了英国的特纳奖。Simon毕业于诺丁汉 Trent Polytechnic的摄影系,随后还在Glasgow School of Art就读。成名作有Tabernas Desert Run (2004)Shedboatshed (Mobile Architecture No 2) 2005。
2005年泰納獎得主Simon Starling,在我還未認識他之前朋友跟我提了Shedboatshed,那件木屋變船船變木屋的作品,Simon Starling將一幢木造的老舊小木屋拆解,然後用這些木材造了一艘小木船,將剩下的木頭一同承裝到船上從萊茵河畔往下划,一直划到巴賽爾美術館,將小船拆了,回復這些木材原初建構的破爛小木房。當下耳聞這件作品真他媽讓我有啞口無言的崇拜,爾後透過網路得知其他作品及展覽現場,只能說吳老爺愛死這個藝術家了,因該將這張照片列印表框放在供桌前當精神領袖每日三拜。

“若要談我的作品,我想算是我觀念思維的具體呈現”Simon Starling 說(類似,詳細如何我也記不得了),我最感興趣的是在它作品裡頭具詩意的物理性轉化進程,Simon Starling的操作手法都再現實的物理層面實踐,但癥結點在於所選擇物件與手法,透過這些元素材料而形構出剛剛所題的”具詩意的轉化過程”,就像在完成一件使命,它自己必須通過它所設立的關卡達成目的,自己做遊戲給自己玩,還真的有夠好玩。在泰納獎展覽現場裡還有另一件作品Tabernas Desert Run,透明框架裡置放著一台經改裝過的腳踏車與一張仙人掌水彩畫,文件的背後事件如下:2004年Simon騎著它自己改裝過的腳踏車横渡位於西班亞南部的Tabernas沙漠,而這台改裝腳踏車上有個瓶子承裝著氫氣,在其成過程中裝置會收集空氣中的氧氣,與氫氣作用後產生水,騎了66公里的路程回到工作室,將這些在沙漠中蒐集的水取出,然後用這些水來畫一張漂亮的仙人掌水彩畫。很離奇的一個事件,有點像是一個有層次線性發展過程,無形中了散發出某種優雅的氣質,具詩意又帶點自然主的韻味…….

不管是木屋還是腳踏車,裡頭都採用著某種身分轉換的模式,且昰藉由元素材料的拆解、重組、功能轉換等物理形式,加上事件本身所拉開的距離空間與時間,將作品拼湊成憂美的詩性與協調性。如Tabernas Desert Run中,在沙漠中行駛66公里的路程是一個持續的生產(藉氫與氧結合成水),回到工作室之後,這一路上的生產物(水)就猶如將66公里的沙漠歷程收容在其中,裡頭有某種抽像的能量來自於背後所發生的事件,這瓶具能量的產物(水)再經由藝術家操作轉化成一張具象徵性的仙人掌水彩畫與沙漠這個場域有所連結,整段進程就以這些細膩的轉化將各個元素聯繫成一段完美的故事。且最吸引我的一點是,雖然Simon Starling 作品歸類為觀念藝術,但還帶有一種超越觀念藝術的特質來自於某種非知識論的澱積。這樣的深厚層次或許就容易其價值是投射於藝術之上,成為一個專業領域。雖然Simon Starling作品背後或多或少會有知識論的層次支撐,但作品形塑出的趣味與詩性卻是很容易捉摸的。雖然無法用言語去詮釋這份抽象的美麗,也許與不必去詮釋,但我認為這是作品自然顯現的個強大能量,整個事件自然而然散發出的一種氣質。
艺术家作品

在作品“拯救杜鹃花”中,Simon将翻转历史,将杜鹃花,这种在南西班牙被视为野草的物种归还到它的原发地苏格兰(18世纪中,杜鹃花被引进西班牙)。为了防止杜鹃花对生态环境的破坏,唯一根治它的方法只有将它连根拔起。为此,Simon决定用一辆红色的沃尔沃将其运输回老家苏格兰。运输过程被录像记录。

“我有一个破坏事物的坏纪录,”斯塔林曾经这样谈论自己。今年38岁的西蒙·斯塔林,在德国塞纳河畔找到一个破旧的木棚,他把它们拆开,花了一个月的时间用一部分木料做成了一个划船,然后把剩下的部分装在船上,顺流而下7英里后,漂到瑞士的巴塞尔,最后在瑞士博物馆,他把船拆开,又重新地组装成了一个木棚。“他感兴趣于物体的创造,关注的是事物是如何形成它们特有的存在方式,在我们认为理所当然的过程中,他重新主张人与之的关系。”

Simon 将现代音乐大师阿诺尔德·勋伯格的自创的12音创作技法转换成当代艺术的装置形式。在2001年的展览 Seccession 里的作品”Inverted Retrograde Theme” “反向倒退的乐曲”中,艺术家将钢琴分解成几个不同的装置,并将12根象征着不同音符的灯管挂钢琴装置上。
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source: hiroshima-mocajp

サイモン・スターリング Simon Starling

1967年イギリス・エプソム生まれ、現在デンマーク・コペンハーゲン在住。グラスゴー・スクール・オブ・アートを卒業し、90年代半ばより写真やインスタレーション作品を制作。
2003年ヴェニス・ビエンナーレ(イタリア)、2004年グッゲンハイム美術館ヒューゴ・ボス賞最終選考リスト(アメリカ)、2006年釜山ビエンナーレ(韓国)をはじめとした展覧会に参加するなど国際的に活躍する。カムデン・アートセンター(イギリス)で開催の「Never The Same River」展(2010年12月〜2011年2月)では、キュレーションを手がける。2005年、イギリスで最も活躍する現代美術家に贈られるターナー賞を受賞。