Hybe

Light Tree: Interactive Dan Flavin
HYBE’s Light Tree: Interactive Dan Flavin re-illuminates the minimalist fluorescent light tubes of Dan Flavin from the 1960s, through digital technology. Experimenting with light and its effect, Flavin explored artistic meaning in relationships between light, situation, and environment. The readymade fluorescent light fixtures he used created space divided and adjusted by light and composition, offering a newly structured space with light. HYBE’s work expands the logic of Flavin by reinforcing the physical property of light through interactive media. It presents an escape from traditional lighting, as light and color changes when touched by viewers. Lighting here is divided into front and back, and colors are programmed to maintain complementary colors. The front lighting constantly interacts with colors on a back wall through visual contrast and mixture. A random change and diffusion of light with the involvement of viewers provokes tension extending and segmenting space, turning space into a forum for emotional perceptual experience.

RANDOM INTERNATIONAL

随机国际
future self

‘future self’ is a study in human movement. the installation captures movement in light to create a three dimensional ‘living sculpture based on the composite gestures surrounding it, mirroring the actions of those who pass around it. entirely hand-made, 30,000 LED lights line the brass rods which are arranged to create a structure reminiscent of a rectangular prism, 3D cameras record people’s motions which are expressed through a ghostly, illuminated image, constantly changing.

Es Devlin

UK Pavillion
THE POEM PAVILION FEATURES A BREATHTAKING ILLUMINATED ‘MESSAGE TO SPACE’ TO WHICH EACH OF THE EXPO’S ANTICIPATED 25 MILLION VISITORS WILL BE INVITED TO CONTRIBUTE. “THE IDEA DRAWS DIRECTLY ON ONE OF STEPHEN HAWKING’S FINAL PROJECTS, ‘BREAKTHROUGH MESSAGE’, A GLOBAL COMPETITION THAT HAWKING AND HIS COLLEAGUES CONCEIVED IN 2015 INVITING PEOPLE WORLDWIDE TO CONSIDER WHAT MESSAGE WE WOULD COMMUNICATE TO EXPRESS OURSELVES AS A PLANET, SHOULD WE ONE DAY ENCOUNTER OTHER ADVANCED CIVILIZATIONS IN SPACE. WHAT IF THE UK PAVILION AT EXPO 2020 BECOMES A PLACE WHERE VISITORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD TAKE PART IN A COLLECTIVE GLOBAL PROJECT THAT SHOWCASES BRITISH EXPERTISE IN A.I. TECHNOLOGIES AND POETRY WHILE TRANSCENDING NATIONAL IDENTITIES?” Es Devlin

Troika

Thixotropes
They’re called Thixotropes. Compositions comprised of eight illuminated mechanized structures create choreographies of lighting effects that alternate form warm to cold light. Designed by London based design firm Troika, these suspended systems merge technology with art and explore the realm in which rational observations intersect with the metaphysical and surreal. Each of the structures is shaped as a composition of intersecting angular and geometric forms, made of thin tensed banding lined with rows of LED’s. The constructions continuously revolve around their own axis thereby materializing the path of the light and dissolving the spinning structures into compositions of aerial cones, spheres and ribbons of warm and cold light while giving life and shape to an immaterial construct.

Mariko Mori

Enlightenment Capsule
“Enlightenment Capsule, which featured a rainbow-colored acrylic lotus blossom set within a space-age capsule illuminated by sunlight. …Enlightenment Capsule blends traditional symbolism with futuristic elements.” Katrina Klaasmeyer

MASAKI FUJIHATA

beyond pages

The data projector loads images of a leather bound tome onto a tablet which a light pen activates, animating the objects named in it – stone, apple, door, light, writing. The soundscore immaculately emulates the motion of each against paper, save for the syllabic glyphs of Japanese script, for which a voice pronounces the selected syllable. Stone and apple roll and drag across the page, light illuminates a paper-shaded desklamp; door opens a video door in front of where you read, a naked infant romping, lifesize and laughing, in.

KAZUHIRO YAMANAKA

sound cloud
London-based designer kazuhiro yamanaka has created the ‘sound cloud’ a light-emitting quantum glass speaker system installation for saazs ‘a glass house’ program. the structure is composed of five interactive monolithic glass panels, formed with the intention of modelling the integration of innovative glass within architecture and design. the sound and light radiating from ‘sound cloud’ shift in unison, their synchronization may be altered by the viewer as they adjust their aural and visual experience by means of a touch-screen controller.
yamanaka aspired for the visitors to ‘be able to hear the sound move from one to another, jumping back and forth and echoing from the panels.’
a sound module is attached to each panel. as it vibrates,the three layers of glass move at a frequency, which creates optimum sound quality. the sound for the installation was developed by the france-based sound designer, gling-glang. yamanaka and gling-glang devised a soundscape by which ‘sound cloud’ visitors were able to sense the sculptural construction of the music in walking through the installation’s glass-paneled pathway.
the glass is outfitted with a light-emitting system known as ‘LED in glass’, invented by quantum glass. through this technology, the panels become a source of light. the ‘sound cloud’ is illuminated as the LED bars are fitted around the edge of the panel in order to direct beams of light through the edge of the extra clear glass sheet. as a result, light refraction occurs from the front side by means of a white enamel screen print on the opposite side.
yamanaka chose to slightly obscure the brightness of the glass sound system by creating a thin layer from millions of light dots, culminating in a cloud-like shape.

Klaus Obermaier

克劳斯奥伯迈尔
the concept of … (here and now)

In front of a giant screen, two dancers interact with a cohort of cameras… Their movements are captured by infra-red sensors and projected onto the screen, whereby their bodies become the canvas on which new images take shape. The result is a shifting kaleidoscope of strange, living, quasi-mathematical visual worlds which sometimes seem to be emanating or even escaping from the dancers’ bodies. “Who decides which movement to make: the man or the machine?” Blurring the line between the real and the virtual, Klaus Obermaier loves to subsume his performers’ bodies and physicality in a disconcerting digital universe. With his latest creation, the choreographer/artist has taken a bold new step. He has constructed a system of projectors and infra-red sensor-cameras, trained upon the movements of two dancers. The performers thus find themselves thrown headlong into a living, moving graphical universe: their movements are projected onto the screen, but at the same time their bodies are illuminated by more projected images. This is a true artistic performance, pushing well beyond the frontiers of a standard dance recital, or even a contemporary dance show. A corporeal, temporal performance. A choreography which makes subtle use of its raw materials, deftly combining lights, video, perspectives and the real-time power of bodily movement.

BarabásiLab

Hidden Patterns
The co-citation network for Nature: more than 88,000 papers published by the journal since 1900 are each represented by a dot, coloured by discipline. Papers are linked if another scientific paper (of those indexed in the Web of Science) cites both; the dot size reflects the number of these co-citation links.
Invisible, hidden connections and constantly repeating patterns within nature, society, language, and culture can not only be explored but also made visible. Barabási’s network approach promises to deliver a comprehensive, universal method that will illuminate many phenomena with scientific precision.

Raster-Noton

White Circle
»White Circle« consists of fluorescent tubes that respond to musical impulses and illuminate the room. Five dedicated compositions by alva noto, byetone, frank bretschneider, and kangding ray playing in a continuous loop (one set takes ca. 45 minutes) model the interrelation between sound, light, and architecture in different ways. Each piece represents an independent and self-contained conceptual proposal by the respective composer. All tracks are multichannel compositions based on the idea of creating a vivid immediate experience of auditory space and visual stimuli. With acoustic material routed to twentyseven speakers placed throughout the gallery, sound itself takes on a threedimensional and indeed sculptural quality.

jurgen h. mayer and juan rey

Mira Madrid
Jürge Hermann Mayer and Juan Rey sign this project whose flagship is the placement of seven bastions (one for each star of the Community flag) 100 meters high that would be illuminated at night. Km 0 and the statues would maintain their position, and the entrances to the Metro would be surrounded by landscaped areas and perimeter seats.

László Moholy-Nagy

Light Space Modulator

“This piece of lighting equipment is a device used for demonstrating both plays of light and manifestations of movement. The model consists of a cube-like body or box, 120 x 120 cm in size, with a circular opening (stage opening) at its front side. On the back of the panel, mounted around the opening are a number of yellow, green, blue, rot, and white-toned electric bulbs (approximately 70 illuminating bulbs of 15 watts each, and 5 headlamps of 100 watts). Located inside the body, parallel to its front side, is a second panel; this panel too, bears a circular opening about which are mounted electric lightbulbs of different colors. In accordance with a predetermined plan, individual bulbs glow at different points. They illuminate a continually moving mechanism built of partly translucent, partly transparent, and partly fretted materials, in order to cause the best possible play of shadow formations on the back wall of the closed box”. László Moholy-Nagy

Mansai Nomura

MANSAI: Kaitai-Shinsho No.30 Special Edition “5W1H”
5W refers to the five interrogatives; “When, Where, Who, What and Why”, while 1H refers to the interrogative “How”. In this work, Manabe attempts to encode humans’ attitudes to these six enquiry words in an effort to explore the primitive roots of interpersonal expression, and illuminate the fundamental sources of human behavior. By converting such factors into numerical information, while drawing also on analog thinking, the piece is a search for further understanding human nature.
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Planned by Mansai Nomura
Visual Design/Technical Direction:Daito Manabe+Motoi Ishibashi+Rhizomatiks Research
Music: Daito Manabe + Hopebox
Cast: Mansai Nomura, Yuichi Otsuki, Mansaku no kai

Ann Veronica Janssens

States of Mind
Brussels-based artist Ann Veronica Janssens’ practice is concerned primarily with light, colour, and perception. Janssens makes very few art objects. Instead, her work attempts to escape the ‘tyranny of objects’ and what she describes as their ‘overbearing materiality’. Since the late 1990s, Janssens has filled spaces with washes of coloured light or ‘haze sculptures’: dense, illuminated clouds of vapour that render surroundings unfamiliar and sensory perception altered.

Jeppe Hein

Breath from Pineal to Hara

Coloured neon rings light up in a specified sequence behind a two-way mirror, layered with reflections of the visitors and the surrounding space. Starting with the inner ring, the individual rings light up one after the other. Once all rings are illuminated, they switch off again from the outer ring to the inside. The sequence and colours are reminiscent of the breathing technique from Pineal to Hara and the artwork invites the viewer to breath accordingly. Combined with the two-way mirror in front of it, it seems to awaken viewers to the present moment and make the usually unconscious process of breathing conscious for a while. Breathe in. Breathe out.

YING GAO

no(where) now(here)
Fashion designer Ying Gao has fabricated a pair of dresses that writhe around and light up when someone stares at them.”We use an eye-tracking system so the dresses move when a spectator is staring,” Ying Gao told Dezeen. “[The system] can also turn off the lights, then the dresses illuminate.” The gaze-activated dresses are embedded with eye-tracking technology that responds to an observer’s gaze by activating tiny motors to move parts of the dresses in mesmerising patterns.

Behnaz Farahi

Synapse
Synapse is a 3D-printed helmet which moves and illuminates according to brain activity[…] The main intention of this project is to explore the possibilities of multi-material 3D printing in order to produce a shape-changing structure around the body as a second skin. Additionally, the project seeks to explore direct control of the movement with neural commands from the brain so that we can effectively control the environment around us through our thoughts. The environment therefore becomes an extension of our bodies. This project aims to play with the intimacy of our bodies and the environment to the point that the distinction between them becomes blurred, as both have ‘become’ a single entity. The helmet motion is controlled by the Eletroencephalography (EEG) of the brain. A Neurosky’s EEG chip and Mindflex headset have been modified and redesigned in order to create a seamless blend between technology and design.

daniel von sturmer

electric-light
Electric Light presents a scenography of forms borrowed from the world-behind-the-scenes of lens based image production. Backdrops, stands, flats, flags and bounces populate the gallery space, illuminated by a changing array of coloured lights. A moving light animates the space with changing forms, shapes and colours, adding another layer of dynamic activity. This new work brings light to the foreground and renders the gallery as an unfolding set.

XEX

Prismverse
Prismverse is an installation inspired by light rays travelling in a diamond with Brilliant cut – a form that produces phenomenal brilliance with maximized light directed through its top. With a complex geometrical tessellated mirror wall, the highly illuminated interior becomes a metaphor for the instant tone-up effect of Dr.Jart+ V7 Toning Light.

Myriam Bleau

SOFT REVOLVERS
Soft Revolvers is a music performance for 4 spinning tops built with clear acrylic by the artist. Each spinning top, 10’ in diameter, is associated with an ‘instrument’ or part in an electronic music composition. The tops are equipped with gyroscopes and accelerometers that communicate wirelessly with a computer where the motion data collected (speed,unsteadiness at the end of a spin, acceleration spikes in case of collisions) informs musical algorithms designed in Pure Data. LEDs placed inside the tops illuminate the body of the objects in a precise counterpoint to the music.

KURT HENTSCHLAGER

Zee
File Festival 

Immersive Audiovisual Environment Artificial Fog, Stroboscopes, Pulse Lights and Surround Sound, 2008

ZEE proposes a state of tabula rasa and unfolds without a narrative or reproducible imagery.The audience wanders freely in a space filled with extremely dense fog that fully obscures all of its boundaries. Stroboscopic- and pulse lights illuminate the fog, in a softened and evenly dispersed manner, creating kaleidoscopic three-dimensional structures in constant animation. An ambient and minimal sound-scape connects to the imagery, without directly synchronizing to it.The core visual impression of ZEE is of a psychedelic architecture of pure light, an abstract luminescent landscape enveloping the visitor. Time appears to stand still.

Dan Flavin

Untitled (to Barnett Newman) two
Dan Flavin was an American artist and pioneer of Minimalism, best known for his seminal installations of light fixtures. His illuminated sculptures offer a rigorous formal and conceptual investigation of space and light, wherein the artist arranged commercial fluorescent bulbs into differing geometric compositions. “I like art as thought better than art as work,” he once said. “I’ve always maintained this. It’s important to me that I don’t get my hands dirty. It’s not because I’m instinctively lazy. It’s a declaration: art is thought.”

XEX

Prismverse
Hong-kong based design studio, XEX, presents ‘prismverse’, an interactive diamond-themed installation in shanghai. The installation was completed for american skincare brand, Dr. jart+, to serve as an experiential pavilion for their ‘instant V7 toning light’ at raffles city mall. The immersive installation is inspired by light rays traveling through a diamond. With a 10 meter-long LED floor and the complex geometrical tessellated mirror wall, the highly illuminated interior becomes a metaphor for the instant tone-up effect of the skin product.

IVAN TOTH DEPENA

Reflection
Ivan Toth Depeña’s light-based installation “Reflect” was permanently installed in the Stephen Clark Government Center Lobby in Miami in November, 2011. Commissioned by the Miami-Dade Art in Public Places initiative, the work illuminates the dynamism of the lobby space and encourages a sense of discovery in the visitors.

Tim Noble and Sue Webster

spinning heads

Noble and Webster produce silhouetted self-portraits through carefully constructed mounds of rubbish and debris illuminated at one precise angle, transforming the abstract pieces into figurative composites. Each sculptural installation represents this duality of art and also references the duality of man. Things appear to be far more complex than what first meets the eye. Whether you first notice the figurative shadow or the abstract wood piles, there is always the other to view second as its other half.

guillaume mazars

ambient light
Project for a kiosk on the lakefront of Chicago. Waterfronts are special places. A meeting point between earth and sea, the horizon is exposed. More than elsewhere the sky is present, it illuminates and color permeates the place. The project aims to exacerbate this feeling by framing the views and accentuating the light of the moment.A translucent fabric filter diffuses the light, revealing the average color of the sky. This veil delimits the space and generates privacy. The fabric masks some of the context to better reveal its brightness. Inside a suspended fabric ring provides shade. The center of the roof is open to expose the sky. All you can see and connect with is the horizon and the sky.

Du Zhenjun

Babel

The first synonym for disorder that appears in the dictionary is babel, with a lowercase letter
Du Zhenjun transforms the world into a new tower of Babel, but don’t you think this Earth already is? Isn’t there already too much disorder, injustice and misunderstanding?
The first synonym for disorder that appears in the dictionary is babel, with a lowercase letter. Nor are all the consequences of the confusion wanted by God here, as if to justify this adjective. We embody pride and supremacy over the world, the same one that He wanted us to inhabit.
In the images proposed by Du Zhenjun we observe a standard composition: in the center there is always an interpretation of the Tower, various shapes, various structures, various visions. Then a gray atmosphere hovers all around, the atmosphere of reality. A mass of things, people and buildings. They are parts of photographs, or rather of journalistic reports, of war and more.
We do not identify the origin of the light source, it is in the air: everything is illuminated, as in the composite prints of the late nineteenth century, ancestors of photomontage.

Jiang Pengyi

Everything Illuminates No. 9

Stephen Cornford

Binatone Galaxy

An installation for used cassette players which looks on their obsolescence not as an ending, but as an opportunity to reconsider their functional potential. Superseded as playback devices, they become instruments in their own right. Replacing the prerecorded content of each tape with a microphone gives us the chance to listen instead to the rhythmic and resonant properties of these once ubiquitous plastic shells. Binatone Galaxy brings the framework within which a generation purchased their favourite records to the centre of attention, revealing the acoustics of the cassette and the voices of the machines themselves.“On the walls of a white room, brightly illuminated with natural light, Stephen Cornford, and artist who describes his work as existing “at the intersection of sculpture and music”, has mounted some 30 old cassette recorders. Models from Boots, Sanyo, Robotic, one lone and gorgeously named Binatone Galaxy: they all hang on the walls, wired up, tapes loaded and ready for action. Smitten by an attack of technological melancholia, the visitor can wonder who owned these things, what pop charts did these machines once record? Were they ever placed next to pillows, late at night for surreptitious listening pleasures? What happened to the voices that once rubbed the magnetic heads of these little machines? For some artists, the speed (and resulting impact) of obsolescence on the technology we once took for granted has spawned a form of fetishism, in which the voices – the human agency – they once recorded exist in an alternate, ghostly dimension, a reminder of what once was. This is not Cornford’s theme. The fact that each audio cassette in his machines is fitted with a motion sensor and a contact mic, so that, on entry the machines whirr into action, indicates that Binatone Galaxy is very much of the here and now. Yes, Cornford has chosen old, cheap and accessible technology with which to realise this, but I suspect that he is aiming for a furrruuuzzy audio intimacy.

Tobias Putrih

Re-projection: Hoosac

Influenced by the utopian projects — and notable failures — of innovative artists and designers such as Buckminster Fuller, Frederick Kiesler, and Charles Eames, Tobias Putrih likens his works to experiments, or design prototypes. His use of cheap materials, including egg crates, cardboard, and plywood signify both a sense of potential and impending collapse. Many of the artist’s works reference the architecture and spectacle of the cinema: a space suspended between fantasy and reality, image and environment. With Re-projection: Hoosac Putrih distills the cinema to its most basic element: fishing line stretched across the gallery mimics the conical trajectory of a beam of light. A spotlight hits the strands of monofilament which in turn become a screen, reflecting an image in illuminated dots. Inspired by the Hoosac Tunnel just east of North Adams — a storied, engineering marvel that draws ghost-hunters to the area — Putrih’s tunnel is, likewise, both real and a representation, an optical trick that invites both wonder and investigation.

1024 architecture

VORTEX

Architectural fragment made from scaffolding, VORTEX has a raw wood skin highlighted by 12 lines of LED light as many generative and constructive project’s lines. Merging organic materials with new technologies, this hybrid architectural artwork wraps around and embraces the footbridge between the complex’s two buildings, revealing and enhancing the venue’s dynamic energy while working as a live visualizer of energy consumption.VORTEX evolves like a living organism; it breathes, trembles and emits pulses of light created using 1024’s MadMapper software. Manually controlled via a joystick, the structure can be synchronized to music and also displays its location’s energy consumption through a series of illuminated tubes. It ultimately answers to the ambient environment around it, capturing the Darwin Ecosystem Project’s unique energy consumption footprint, and converting it into data that is processed to spawn realtime visuals.
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RAYEN MADRID

Illuminated

Chris Klapper & Patrick Gallagher

Symphony in D Minor

‘Symphony in D Minor’ is an interactive sound and video installation on an epic scale. A thunderstorm contained within a series of large hand cast resin sculptures, each individual form is a unique instrument hanging from the ceiling. Suspended just within reach and activated by touch, the viewer sets the symphony in motion by pushing the forms through the air to trigger the various sound elements of the storm. Sensors relay individual recordings of thunder, lightning, wind and rain with alternating intensities to a full-scale sound system. Acting as both conductor and musician, the viewer creates an evolving composition out of atmospheric sounds, forging an environment that envelops the audience. Housed within each piece are 2 video projectors employing mapping software to evenly fill the surface of the forms. Like giant illuminated pendulums each sculpture radiates video projections that in their dormant state display abstractions of water droplets and slow moving clouds. As the sensors detect movement different ranges initiate more visual elements of the storm. Once activated, the form then shifts to a swirling torrent of clouds.

SHIRO KURAMATA

倉俣 史朗
glass chair

Shiro Kuramata’s approach to designing objects reflects the atmosphere of innovation in postwar Japan. By 1970, Kuramata had introduced alternative materials such as acrylic and glass into his furniture, which played on traditional ideas of materiality and form.Transparency, the appearance of weightlessness, and a Minimalist vocabulary quickly became his signature aesthetic. In 1976, Kuramata designed Glass Chair. Its reductivist and planar form reflects his interest in geometry as well as the effect of light as it transforms and illuminates the glass. Kuramata, like many of his Japanese contemporaries, looked to Western culture for inspiration. In particular, the sculptures of Donald Judd and Dan Flavin influenced Kuramata’s furniture designs of the 1970s, such as Glass Chair.

TORAFU ARCHITECTS

Crystal Aqua Trees
Installed in Sony Square in Tokyo and on display until January 14, the ‘Crystal Aqua Trees’ is a crystal work of art inspired by the concept of a fountain that can be seen as a spray of water as well as a Christmas tree. Designed by Torafu Architects, the project was inspired by the Trevi fountain in Rome, the “Ai no Izumi” (Fountain of Love) charity drive, which has been held by Sony every year since 1968. For this edition, the architects proposed a new embodiment as an interactive installation. More images and architects’ description after the break.In response to changes in the landscape of the street and the actions of people, the illumination will play beautiful music in harmony with a gorgeous light display. The movement of people is picked up by a sensor camera, which prompts the pillars of light illuminated by LEDs to change colors to create a glimmering structure.Whenever coins are deposited in the crystal donation box placed in front of the square, the installation responds by switching to a special performance, as if acknowledging the contributions made. Like water in a fountain, the polished black floor surface of the stage reflects the illumination, creating a wonderful scene in the middle of the streets of Ginza.

JOSHUA KIRSCH

约书亚·基尔希
Джошуа Кирш
An amazing interactive light sculpture entitled Concentricity 96 by the New Jersey artist Joshua Kirsch. “Concentricity is an interactive light sculpture series. Each of the three works presents an illuminated white handle which the viewer is invited to move in any direction. Reed switches located within the sculpture’s circuitry sense the movements of a magnet contained in the handle and translate that information into LED light. For Concentricity 96, omnidirectional movement of the center handle is facilitated by twelve hinged pantagraph-type mechanisms. 96 red/white LED arrays as well as LED-lit acrylic circuit boards respond to the viewer’s movements.

CHARLES SOWERS

Illuminated Fog
Device for viewing the complex motions and patterns in fog.

DAN FLAVIN

Dan Flavin è stato un artista americano e pioniere del minimalismo, meglio conosciuto per le sue installazioni fondamentali di lampade. Le sue sculture illuminate offrono una rigorosa indagine formale e concettuale dello spazio e della luce, in cui l’artista ha disposto lampadine fluorescenti commerciali in diverse composizioni geometriche. “Mi piace l’arte come pensiero più che l’arte come lavoro”, ha detto una volta. “L’ho sempre sostenuto. Per me è importante non sporcarmi le mani. Non è perché sono istintivamente pigro. È una dichiarazione: l’arte è pensiero. “

ÉTIENNE-LOUIS BOULLÉE

Cénotaphe à Newton

Boullée promoted the idea of making architecture expressive of its purpose, a doctrine that his detractors termed architecture parlante (“talking architecture”), which was an essential element in Beaux-Arts architectural training in the later 19th century. His style was most notably exemplified in his proposal for a cenotaph (a funerary monument celebrating a figure interred elsewhere) for the English scientist Isaac Newton, who 50 years after his death became a symbol of Enlightenment ideas. The building itself was a 150 m (500 ft) tall sphere, taller than the Great Pyramids of Giza, encompassed by two large barriers circled by hundreds of cypress trees. The massive and spheric shape of the building was inspired by Boullée’s own study called “theory of bodies” where he claims that the most beautiful and perfect natural body is the sphere, which is the most prominent element of the Newton Memorial. Though the structure was never built, Boullée had many ink and wash drawings engraved and circulated widely in the professional circles in 1784. The small sarcophagus for Newton is placed at the lower pole of the sphere. The design of the memorial is intended to create the effect of day and night. The night effect occurs when the sarcophagus is illuminated by the sunlight coming through the holes in the vaulting, giving the illusion of stars in the night sky. The day effect is an armillary sphere hanging in the center that gives off a mysterious glow. Thus, the use of light in the building’s design causes the building’s interior to change its appearance.