Dubbed “the northern light of the Netherlands” by Studio Roosegaarde, the Waterlicht installation is designed to create the impression of a “virtual flood”.The waving lines of light spread across 1.6 hectares bear a resemblance to the northern lights – the natural phenomenon created when charged particles enter the Earth’s atmosphere – when viewed from underneath.
Ponte do macaco
Este projeto é a continuação da ponte suspensa. Um formato externo, planejado para o jardim japonês Tatton Park para a bienal de mesmo nome. Esta ponte de corda sairá da água e formará um arco pela tração dos grandes balões de hélio.
This project is the continuation of the suspension bridge. An outdoor format, planned for the Japanese Tatton Park garden for the biennial of the same name. This rope bridge will come out of the water and form an arc by the pull of the large helium balloons.
The Blank to Overcome
Part of the ”blank” project that the artist has been creating since 2011, “The Blank to Overcome” utilizes air pumps, power supply control circuitry, water, solution, glycerin, ethanol and electricity to produce bubbles in the air. The theme of ”blanks” denotes a space for an unsolved ”inquiry” through the perspectives for thinking about the post-3.11 present: how the bubbles are always shifting as a giant cluster, almost without mass or structure, and the facing up to this; and the framework since modernity that has prescribed society, and the ”involved” or the ”other”. From this work debate will surely emerge.
アーティストが2011年から作成している「ブランク」プロジェクトの一部である「TheBlankto Overcome」は、エアポンプ、電源制御回路、水、溶液、グリセリン、エタノール、電気を利用して空気中に気泡を生成します。 「空白」のテーマは、3.11以降の現在について考えるための視点を通して、未解決の「問い合わせ」のためのスペースを示しています。泡は、ほとんど質量や構造がなく、巨大なクラスターとして常にシフトしており、これに直面しています。 ; そして、社会を規定してきた近代以来の枠組み、そして「関与する」または「その他」。 この仕事から議論が確実に浮かび上がるでしょう。
Объект «База» реализован во время работы художника по приглашению Министерства культуры Франции в ателье Кольдера в городе Саше. Девятиметровая горизонтальная труба, заполненная водой, образует тоннель для движения черной подводной лодки, которая, двигаясь по принципу троллейбуса, улавливается в крайних точках специальным устройством. Приподнимаясь над водой, на пропеллерах лодка поворачивается в обратную сторону и подобно хамелеону изменяет свою окраску, превращаясь в разноцветную и красивую. После погружения в воду лодка опять чернеет и стремительно продолжает движение
Object “Base” was realized during the artist’s work at the invitation of the Ministry of Culture of France in the atelier Colder in the city of Sachet. A nine-meter horizontal pipe, filled with water, forms a tunnel for the movement of a black submarine, which, moving according to the principle of a trolleybus, is caught at the extreme points by a special device. Rising above the water, on the propellers, the boat turns in the opposite direction and, like a chameleon, changes its color, turning into a multi-colored and beautiful one. After immersion in the water, the boat turns black again and continues to move rapidly
The Raft depicts at life-sized scale a group of ordinary people casually standing together. Suddenly, they are struck by strong blasts of water that rush in, overtake them, and then, just as unexpectedly, recede. In the aftermath of the deluge, the victims huddle together, seek protection, and help those who have fallen. The viewer experiences this event in an immersive setting, standing in a darkened room and surrounded by the roaring sounds of the water. Meticulously captured in slow-motion, The Raft arouses a visceral experience of human calamity and shared humanity, provoking a consideration of the range of responses to crisis.
Das Interesse an Architektur und Leben an der Küste veranlasste Casebere, das Projekt zu entwickeln, das eine Folge einer Reihe von Bildern ist, die er 2016 auf der Grundlage der Gebäude von Luis Barragán erstellt hat. Casebere hat die Serie mit dem Titel On the Water’s Edge erstellt, um auf Probleme im Zusammenhang mit dem Klimawandel und insbesondere auf die Notwendigkeit aufmerksam zu machen, dass Menschen kreativ auf die Bedrohung durch den Anstieg des Meeresspiegels reagieren müssen.
Ronald van der Meijs
Odoshi Cloud Sequence
A symbiosis between nature and culture is created against the backdrop of the Japanese garden in the pond of the Amstelpark. This artwork explores new possibilities to generate sound and composition that are controlled by slow, unpredictable and unexpected elements of nature which are highly respected in Japanese culture. The diversity of natural sounds gives the work an almost meditative character, while the dependance on natural factors evoke a tension between longing and acceptance. This sound installation engages, as a natural sequencer, in a dialogue with the water, sun wind and clouds. It refers to Japanese garden culture by using the principle of the Japanese bamboo water tumbler.
Futuristic Sustainable Mountain Pod
A Futuristic Smart Sustainable Mountain pod designed to utilize solar power using a petals mechanism that allows it to open up and close down to charge up the pod using photovoltaic cells mounted on the petals. Inspired by a flower motion, the petals when open allows for a 360° view of the surrounding, the mechanism could also potentially allow the pod to collect rainwater to be self-sufficient and of the grid hide out.
Resonance is an interactive audio-visual experience that encourages people to engage in a dialogue with water, whilst creating an intimate atmosphere of contemplation. The installation comes fully to life when people interact with it. We used sound and color to immerse the museum visitors and invite them to explore the role that technology and human intervention might play in harmonizing our environment.
REVITAL COHEN & TUUR VAN BALEN
A number of life-support machines are connected to each other, circulating liquids and air in attempt to mimic a biological structure.
The Immortal investigates human dependence on electronics, the desire to make machines replicate organisms and our perception of anatomy as reflected by biomedical engineering.
A web of tubes and electric cords are interwoven in closed circuits through a Heart-Lung Machine, Dialysis Machine, an Infant Incubator, a Mechanical Ventilator and an Intraoperative Cell Salvage Machine. The organ replacement machines operate in orchestrated loops, keeping each other alive through circulation of electrical impulses, oxygen and artificial blood.
Salted water acts as blood replacement: throughout the artificial circulatory system minerals are added and filtered out again, the blood gets oxygenated via contact with the oxygen cycle, and an ECG device monitors the system’s heartbeat. As the fluid pumps around the room in a meditative pulse, the sound of mechanical breath and slow humming of motors resonates in the body through a comforting yet disquieting soundscape.Life support machines are extraordinary devices; computers designed to activate our bodies when anatomy fails, hidden away in hospital wards. Although they are designed as the ultimate utilitarian appliances, they are extremely meaningful and carry a complex social, cultural and ethical subtext. While life prolonging technologies are invented as emergency measures to combat or delay death, my interest lies in considering these devices as a human enhancement strategy.This work is a continuation of my investigation of the patient as a cyborg, questioning the relationship between medicine and techno- fantasies about mechanical bodies, hyper abilities and posthumanism.
Scored for soloists, mixed chorus, children’s chorus and chamber ensemble, Iannis Xenakis’ music for Oresteia has been cited as “ruggedly dissonant” since its 1987 première in Sicily. A wooden-planked stage is empty save three platforms, one each for the chamber players and percussion, another for a drummer on a separate perch. On a high screen to start, a loop video shows an almost-naked woman stretched out face down in a bathtub who is being hosed down uninterruptedly with water. No forewarning, and the clip changes to a thick forest, a small girl being physically abused by an adult man. While the same video images reappear at the end of the opera, but it’s nebulous soft-edged shapes –mood landscapes as it were – that are the usual backdrop for the 90-minute piece.
localStyle (Marlena Novak & Jay Alan Yim) in collaboration with Malcolm MacIver
‘scale’ is an interspecies art project: an audience-interactive installation that involves nocturnal electric fish from the Amazon River Basin. Twelve different species of these fish comprise a choir whose sonified electrical fields provide the source tones for an immersive audiovisual environment. The fish are housed in individual tanks configured in a custom-built sculptural arc of aluminum frames placed around a central podium. The electrical field from each fish is translated into sound, and is thus heard — unprocessed or with digital effects added, with immediate control over volume via a touchscreen panel — through a 12-channel surround sound system, and with LED arrays under each tank for visual feedback. All software is custom-designed. Audience members interact as deejays with the system. Amongst the goals of the project is our desire to foster wider public awareness of these remarkable creatures, their importance to the field of neurological research, and the fragility of their native ecosystem.The project leaders comprise visual/conceptual artist Marlena Novak, composer/sound designer Jay Alan Yim, and neural engineer Malcolm MacIver. MacIver’s research focuses on sensory processing and locomotion in electric fish and translating this research into bio-inspired technologies for sensing and underwater propulsion through advanced fish robots. Novak and Yim, collaborating as ‘localStyle’, make intermedia works that explore perceptual themes, addressing both physical and psychological thresholds in the context of behavior, society/politics, and aesthetics.
WINDLICHT is a artwork by Roosegaarde which shows the beauty of green energy by connecting windmill blades with lines of light. Special software and tracking technology detect the windmill blades rotating at 280 kilometres per hour. Visitors can tune into radio canal WINDLICHT FM 105.3 FM to hear the stories behind the artwork. WINDLICHT creates the missing link between the Dutch and the beauty of our new landscape.
martyrs (earth, air, fire, water)
“As the work opens, four individuals are shown in stasis, a pause from their suffering. Gradually there is movement in each scene as an element of nature begins to disturb their stillness. Flames rain down, winds begin to lash, water cascades, and earth flies up. As the elements rage, each martyr’s resolve remains unchanged. In their most violent assault, the elements represent the darkest hour of the martyr’s passage through death into the light.”
“Chijikinkutsu” is a coinage, specially created for the title of this work by mingling two Japanese words: “Chijiki” and “Suikinkutsu”.”Chijiki” means geomagnetism: terrestrial magnetic properties that cannot be sensed by the human body but that exists everywhere on earth. Since long before the Age of Discovery, people have traveled with navigation using compasses employing geomagnetism. In recent years, various devises that utilize geomagnetism have even been incorporated into smartphones[…] “Suikinkutsu” is a sound installation for a Japanese traditional garden, invented in the Edo period. The sounds of water drops falling into an earthenware pot buried under a stone wash basin resonate through hollow bamboo utensils. The concept of the work “Chijikinkutsu” does not derive from experimentalism of science and technology on which media arts rely, nor from architectural theory of western music upon which some sound arts lay their foundation. While utilizing the action of geomagnetism normally treated as a subject of science, this sound installation expands the subtle sounds of “Suikinkutsu” in the context of Japanese perspective on Nature.
A 10-foot tall vortex is formed by air blowers and an ultrasonic fog machine inside a sculpture installed in the atrium adjacent to the Winter Garden. The vortex continually changed shape in response to the surrounding air currents.These fluctuations gave the vortex an erratic and life-like appearance. Viewers were encouraged to alter the shape of the vortex with their hands. The calm, central core of the vortex is clearly evident.
Kahn’s interactive scientific projects leave little doubt about his command of meteorological processes. Through his immense technical ability, he demonstrates the versatility of turbulent systems, such as the vortices of wind and water. He employs diverse mechanical, pneumatic and electrical technologies to design, build and refine his installations. This is how he constructs dazzlingly complex but comprehensible images of nature that respond to viewers, conform to architectural structures, and reveal environmental conditions.
Interference Fit Canyon
“by Maya Alam uses an entropic drawing process to capture the coalescence of solid and fluid states of matter within a single object. The drawing is comprised of contours that delineate a cube with hard edges that appear to be soft from particular vantage points and soft edges that appear to be hard from others. These contours are mapped back onto the cube geometry in a transitional process whereby the legibility of the cube becomes progressively more inscrutable. The drawing process parallels the effects created by the presence of a cubic object within the L.A. River that disrupts the flow of water and accentuates the presence of detritus. A process of continual erosion acts differentially on the object over time, transforming its appearance and performance in relation to water flow”. Marcelyn Gow
ok-offenens kulturhaus linz
In 1970 Nakaya created her first fog sculpture when commissioned by the group Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T) to make a work for the Pepsi Pavillion of the Osaka World Exposition. In creating a work of white mist enclosing the building, Nakaya became the first artist to have used fog as a sculptural medium. E.A.T is an organisation devoted to facilitating working relationships between artists and engineers. Nakaya worked with American engineer Thomas Mee to create the fog for her Osaka commission, the technique for which she has continued to use, with minor moderations, for her subsequent fog sculptures since.Whilst Nakaya has also worked in film and video, it is her use of fog for which she is best known. Nakaya has used pure-water fog to create installations, performances, stage-sets and environmental park designs, often collaborating with other artists or with performers, choreographers and composers. Nakaya’s interest in fog has developed from its relation to our visual sense. In a thick fog we become disorientated, frustrated at our inability to see. In this way, Nakaya’s sculptures activate our other senses, to compensate for our loss of sight.
Signe Lidén and Espen Sommer Eide
Vertical Studies: Acoustic Shadows and Boundary Reflections; Water Tower Sint Jansklooster In their new collaborative work, Vertical Studies: Acoustic Shadows and Boundary Reflections, Signe Lidén and Espen Sommer invite participants on a journey to a 46-metre-high abandoned water tower in Sint Jansklooster. The tower has been re-imagined as a vertical field-lab where Lidén and Sommer discuss their ongoing research into connections between sound, history, wind and weather. To this end they have constructed a range of special instruments to record and playback sounds in the vertical dimension. The participants on this journey will experience live outdoor vertical studies and a vertical soundscape shaped by Eide and Lidén that ascends the tower’s spiral staircase.
The installation reflektor distortion – conceived as a rotating, water-filled basin – is inspired by the shape of a parabolic mirror that ‚rotates‘ water via centrifugal force. The work consists of the three main components mirror, reflection and distortion. Both curve and distortion of the water surface is affected by speed and integrated resistors that generate a permanently new and re-organizing mirror reflection. The water surface will be supplementary distorted via speaker by resonating low sound frequencies. The function of the mirror is hereby eminent: The mirror surface is the medium that reveals reality as distorted reflection. Rising the question of the observed and the real image the installation plays with the artist’s thesis that we all have a permanent distorted perception of reality.
SONNTAG aus LICHT
Sonntag aus Licht takes as its subject our solar system and the relationships of all the planets that orbit the sun. In this opera, the earth and life on it is represented as the result of the union of light and water. These two elements are presented in the first scene, and the rest of the opera celebrates the evolution of life, of plants, animals, humans, and above all this the planets, moons, and heavenly constellations. The opera has a pronounced ritualistic and meditative character, with very little that can be described as dramatic action.
Yonakani: Young ah Seong, Takuji Narumi & Tomohiro Akagawa
The term “Thermotaxis” signifies a movement of a living organism in response to heat stimulation. A thermal spot has power to encourage people to gather together like open fires in winter or water places in summer. The work “Thermotaxis” characterizes the open space as invisible thermal spots by providing people with thermal information. Our work aims to create a new spatial structure for communication not by architectural approach but by using information technology.
In his public art, Plensa challenged himself to involve the viewer with his art, which led to his conception of the Crown Fountain. His objective was to create a socially relevant, interactive fountain for the 21st century.] Since water is the focus of a fountain, and since Chicago, and especially Millennium Park, is so greatly affected by the nearby waterfront, Plensa sought to create an eternal water work to complement the local natural inspirations
Water and Bonsai
In his continued forays into experimental botany that blur the lines between art and science, artist Makoto Azuma (previously) has reimagined the bonsai tree, one of the oldest Japanese artforms. This latest work titled Water and Bonsai, began with a dead branch from a juniper tree which was carefully attached to java moss meant to simulate the form of leaves. The entire piece was then submerged into a modified hydroponic environment similar to some of his earlier aquatic plantscapes replete with LEDs, a filtration system, and C02 emissions that encourage photosynthesis.
Waterfall presents the viewer with a single static shot of a majestic waterfall. Over the course of the piece a number of diminutive figures walk slowly into the shot on the gravel bar at the bottom of the falls. They have come to pay their respects to the waterfall, we might call them pilgrims – we might call them tourists. Their slow-motion performances appear to be a mixture of the comedic and the devout.
The Admiral’s Garden
Christine Ödlund’s work explores the borders of our knowledge of the world around us, connecting such themes as the chemical communication of plants, synaesthesia and theosophy. She works in a variety of media, including drawing, sculpture, video, watercolour and sound works.
Stress Call of the Stinging Nettle: When a plant reacts to a butterfly larvae feeding on its leaves, it releases chemical substances, or compounds. The characteristics of these compounds have been analyzed in collaboration with the Ecological Chemistry Research Group at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, and then transposed into amplitude and intensity of sinus tones, recorded at EMS (Electroacoustic Music in Sweden), Stockholm. Thus these beautiful graphic score and soundtrack by Swedish artist Christine Ödlund are direct transpositions of “the plant’s life, struggle and death”.
The Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa
Heatherwick Studio au inaugurat în data de 22 septembrie 2017 un nou Muzeu de Artă Contemporană în Africa de Sud – Zeitz MOCAA. Muzeul este amplasat în Cape Town în lungul celebrului V&A Waterfront. Frontul la apă, denumit cu sens istoric Victoria and Albert, atrage zilnic peste 100 000 de oameni. Este amplasat la baza Muntelui Table, în golful natural al fostului port istoric, beneficiind de o deschidere superbă spre ocean, pe de o parte, şi spre vârfurile muntoase, pe de alta.
on the water edge
bright yellow house on water
An interest in architecture and coastal living led Casebere to develop the project, which is a follow up to a set of images he created in 2016 based on the buildings of Luis Barragán. Casebere created the series titled On the Water’s Edge to draw attention to issues relating to climate change and, in particular, the need for humans to respond creatively to the threat posed by rising sea levels.
The Overall Effect of Flying with the Wind
Chen Qi has applied watermarked prints, woodcuts, books, installations, videos and other various media in his “Notations of Time” of 2010. In his new creations, he continues his exploration into “time”, “life”, “existence” and other basic issues with his off-screen language. Thus, his “Flying with the Wind” can be taken as an extension of his general concept of “Notation of Time”, as well as being closely related to his water-based printmaking which is a continuation of the infatuation with the traces of objects from Chinese wash paintings and the ink rubbings of ancient stele inscriptions.
CHRISTIN MARCZINZIK & THI BINH MINH NGUYEN
“Swing” brings these feelings back and makes a dream come true: the dream of flying. Thus, the swing becomes a physical component of an interactive installation. The use of 3D oculus enhances the swinging experience with virtual reality, creating a unique immersive adventure and sending you to a crafted watercolor world.
Universe of Water Particles
Universe of Water Particles is a waterfall created in a computer-simulated environment. A virtual rock is first sculpted and computer-generated water consisting of hundreds of thousands of water particles is then poured onto it. The computer calculates the movement of these particles to produce an accurate waterfall simulation that flows in accordance to physical laws. Next, 0.1 percent of the particles are selected and lines are drawn in relation to them. The sinuousness of the lines depends on the overall interaction among the water particles and forms the magnificent cascade seen on screen.
Rise and Fall
Fiona Tan explores storytelling, memory, and the part they play in the formation of identity throughout this exhibition of five video installations, various associated sketches and one single-channel video. Rise and Fall (2009), elongated projections onto two large, side-by-side screens, is a wordless meditation, set to music, of a woman no longer young but still conscious of her looks; she was clearly a beauty in her youth. As the video proceeds we gather that the young woman pictured on the second screen is the memory of her younger self. They often move through domestic activities (sleeping, bathing, dressing) in parallel; this is inter-cut with scenes of violently rushing water (shot at Niagra Falls, it turns out). It’s a hackneyed metaphor – the water’s endless surging as an image of time’s relentless uni-directionality – but in Tan’s hands that doesn’t seem to matter; she creates extraordinarily emotional work out of simple stories and well-worn themes.
Temporary Encampment (Five Blue Solids)
The precarious installations of Nina Canell (born 1979 in Växjö, Sweden, lives and works in Berlin, Germany) could be read as essays on changeability and uncertainty. Hinged upon a fabric of electromagnetics, her communities of objects quietly interact with each other through modest arrangements, balancing careful ambitions to sustain certain frequencies, movements or altitudes. Electrical debris, wires and neon gas establish temporary, almost performative sculptural unions with natural findings such as water, wood or stones, yielding open-ended moments of synchronicity. An improvisational methodology and a flexibility of form highlight Canell’s quest for sculpture, which exists somewhere in between the material and the immaterial, forming and questioning the conductive relations between solid objects and mental events.
Taipei Museum of Contemporary Art
This building proposal challenges the traditional definition of a museum and the conventional relationship between building and site. The ground floor of the building is reduced to a nominal footprint, enclosing only enough space for basic services, structure and ticketing functions. The ground plane is primarily reserved for exterior public space, including an art park, Hall of Fame, and garden walk. The bulk of the program and building mass are split by the open ground floor. Half of the building is coupled with the earth while the other half hovers in the air. The purpose is twofold; to minimize the damaging effects of extreme local weather by harnessing environmental flows toward productive outcomes and to re-conceptualize the identity of a modern art museum. The manicured roof plane of the below ground program is pocketed with water absorbing vegetation and catchment systems, while the hovering museum above expands to form open atriums, allowing diffuse light to brighten the space and passive airflow to comfortably condition the building.The program of the museum is interconnected. The Contemporary Museum of Art, Children’s Museum of Art and Administration are located within the floating mass. The lecture hall, parking, art resource center, library and classrooms are located below ground. The programs below ground are easily accessible and directly connected through vertical circulation tubes, providing both structural support for the floating mass above and space for movement systems, such as escalators, stairs and elevators between levels. All of the below ground programs are flooded with diffuse light passing through skylights that penetrate the landscape.
DILLER + SCOFIDIO
The Blur Building (an architecture of atmosphere)
The Blur Building is a media pavilion for Swiss EXPO 2002 at the base of Lake Neuchatel in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland.From piles in the water, a tensegrity system of rectilinear struts and diagonal rods cantilevers out over the lake. Ramps and walkways weave through the tensegrity system, some of them providing a counterweight for the structure. The form is based on the work of Buckminster Fuller.The pavilion is made of filtered lake water shot as a fine mist through 13,000 fog nozzles creating an artificial cloud that measures 300 feet wide by 200 feet deep by 65 feet high. A built-in weather station controls fog output in response to shifting climatic conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind direction, and wind speed.The public can approach Blur via a ramped bridge. The 400 foot long ramp deposits visitors at the center of the fog mass onto a large open-air platform where movement is unregulated. Visual and acoustical references are erased along the journey toward the fog leaving only an optical “white-out” and the “white-noise” of pulsing water nozzles. Prior to entering the cloud, each visitor responds to a questionnaire/character profile and receives a “braincoat” (smart raincoat). The coat is used as protection from the wet environment and storage of the personality data for communication with the cloud’s computer network. Using tracking and location technologies, each visitor’s position can be identified and their character profiles compared to any other visitor.In the Glass Box, a space surrounded by glass on six sides, visitors experience a “sense of physical suspension only heightened by an occasional opening in the fog.” As visitors pass one another, their coats compare profiles and change color indicating the degree of attraction or repulsion, much like an involuntary blush – red for affinity, green for antipathy. The system allows interaction among 400 visitors at any time.Visitors can climb another level to the Angel Bar at the summit. The final ascent resembles the sensation of flight as one pierces through the cloud layer to the open sky. Here, visitors relax, take in the view, and choose from a large selection of commercial waters, municipal waters from world capitals, and glacial waters. At night, the fog will function as a dynamic and thick video screen.
Chris Klapper & Patrick Gallagher
Symphony in D Minor
‘Symphony in D Minor’ is an interactive sound and video installation on an epic scale. A thunderstorm contained within a series of large hand cast resin sculptures, each individual form is a unique instrument hanging from the ceiling. Suspended just within reach and activated by touch, the viewer sets the symphony in motion by pushing the forms through the air to trigger the various sound elements of the storm. Sensors relay individual recordings of thunder, lightning, wind and rain with alternating intensities to a full-scale sound system. Acting as both conductor and musician, the viewer creates an evolving composition out of atmospheric sounds, forging an environment that envelops the audience. Housed within each piece are 2 video projectors employing mapping software to evenly fill the surface of the forms. Like giant illuminated pendulums each sculpture radiates video projections that in their dormant state display abstractions of water droplets and slow moving clouds. As the sensors detect movement different ranges initiate more visual elements of the storm. Once activated, the form then shifts to a swirling torrent of clouds.
DESIGN STUDIO EMERGING OBJECTS
American studio Emerging Objects 3D-printed this pavilion using salt harvested from San Francisco Bay. “The structure is an experiment in 3D printing using locally harvested salt from the San Francisco Bay to produce a large-scale, lightweight, additive manufactured structures,” said Ronald Rael and Virginia San Fratello of additive manufacturing startup Emerging Objects. They explained that 500,000 tonnes of sea salt are harvested each year in the San Francisco Bay Area using power from the sun and wind. “The salt is harvested from 109-year-old salt crystallisation ponds in Redwood City,” they said. “These ponds are the final stop in a five-year salt-making process that involves moving bay water through a series of evaporation ponds. In these ponds the highly saline water completes evaporation, leaving 8-12 inches of solid crystallised salt that is then harvested for industrial use.”