NEUROACTIVITY AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

Nature gives us a lot of examples of complex behavior emerging from the interaction of many individuals. The members of an ant colony are capable of a wide variety of complex behaviors: finding and transporting food, constructing elaborate underground complexes of tunnels and chambers, defending their territory from invaders.

Greg Dunn and Brian Edward

Das Gehirn

Um ihre auffallend chaotischen und spontanen Formen einzufangen, werden die Neuronen in Self Reflected mit einer Technik gemalt, bei der Tinte mit Luftstrahlen auf einer Leinwand herumgeblasen wird. Die resultierenden Tintenspritzer bilden auf natürliche Weise fraktale wie neuronale Muster, und obwohl der Künstler lernt, die allgemeinen Grenzen der Technik zu kontrollieren, bleibt er in seinem Herzen ein chaotischer, abstrakter expressionistischer Prozess.

CHRISTOPH DE BOECK

Céu de aço
A topografia íntima do cérebro é disposta em uma grade de 80 placas de teto de aço. O visitante pode experimentar a dinâmica de seu eu cognitivo usando uma interface de EEG, que permite que ele caminhe sob a representação acústica de suas próprias ondas cerebrais. As ressonâncias acumuladas de chapas de aço geram tons penetrantes. A distribuição espacial do impacto e a sobreposição de reverberações criam um espaço sonoro físico para abrigar um fluxo intangível de consciência. ‘Staalhemel’ (‘céu de aço’, 2009) articula a relação contraditória que mantemos com nosso próprio sistema nervoso. O feedback neurológico faz com que o foco cognitivo seja repetidamente interrompido pela representação deste foco. O pensamento concentrado tenta se retratar em um espaço que é remodelado pensando-se quase a cada fração de segundo.

MAX COOPER

Morphose
Morphose verwendet künstliche neuronale Netze, um verwandelnde Skalenbilder zu erzeugen. Das System untersucht, wie natürliche Strukturen von den kleinsten bis zu den größten die ästhetischen Eigenschaften gemeinsam haben, die vom trainierten Netzwerk erkannt und über diese Verbindungen in kontinuierlicher Abfolge wiederhergestellt werden. Es ist eine Studie über die scheinbar unendliche Natur des Raums und der natürlichen physischen Struktur, die sich auf sich selbst zurückschleifen kann, um endlose visuelle Erkundungen und Variationen zu ermöglichen.

NOHLAB

Reise
REISE ist eine 4 min. immersives audiovisuelles Erlebnis, das die Geschichte von Photonen, primären Elementen des Lichts, vom Moment ihrer Annäherung an das Auge bis zur Rekonstruktion durch das Gehirn in wahrnehmbare Formen erzählt. Unsere Reise beginnt mit der Bildung von Photonen im leeren Raum, die farbigen Photonen nähern sich dem Auge und wir befinden uns in der Kapillarstruktur von Iris, der ersten Schicht des Auges. Der nächste Stopp für die Lichtpartikel ist die Linse, die eine kristallinere Form hat. Wir befinden uns in einer refraktiven und fraktalisierten Umgebung. Mit zunehmendem Tempo bewegen wir uns in Richtung einer Struktur vieler Kapillaren, auch bekannt als Sehnerven, die allmählich dünner werden und schließlich Lichtpartikel in Richtung Neuronen übertragen.

QUADRATURE

Ich denke
Die empfangenen Rohsignale dienen als Eingabedaten für ein neuronales Netzwerk, das auf menschlichen Theorien und Ideen von Außerirdischen trainiert wurde. Jetzt versucht es verzweifelt, dieses Wissen anzuwenden und mögliche Botschaften anderer Zivilisationen im Rauschen des Universums zu entdecken. Mysteriöse Geräusche erklingen, wenn die künstliche Intelligenz immer tiefer in die außerirdischen Daten eindringt und dort schließlich den ultimativen Beweis findet. Die Klanginstallation dreht sich um eine der ältesten Fragen der Menschheit – eine, die niemals widerlegt werden kann: Sind wir allein im Universum? ?

Studio A N F

Computervisionen 2
Nach mehr Jahrzehnten des Versuchs, einen Apparat zu konstruieren, der denken kann, können wir endlich die Früchte dieser Bemühungen erleben: Maschinen, die es wissen. Das heißt, nicht nur Maschinen, die Informationen messen und nachschlagen können, sondern auch solche, die ein qualitatives Verständnis der Welt zu haben scheinen. Ein auf Gesichtern trainiertes neuronales Netzwerk weiß nicht nur, wie ein menschliches Gesicht aussieht, es hat auch ein Gefühl dafür, was ein Gesicht ist. Obwohl die Algorithmen, die solche para-neuronalen Formationen erzeugen, relativ einfach sind, verstehen wir nicht vollständig, wie sie funktionieren. Eine Vielzahl von Forschungslabors hat solche Netze auch erfolgreich auf fMRT-Scans (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) lebender Gehirne trainiert, um Bilder, Konzepte und Gedanken effektiv aus dem Geist einer Person zu extrahieren. Hier geschieht die Beugung wahrscheinlich als doppelte: eine Technologie, deren Funktionsweise nicht gut verstanden wird und die eine ebenso unklare natürliche Formation mit einem gewissen Erfolg qualitativ analysiert. Andreas N. Fischers Arbeit Computer Visions II scheint kurz hinter dieser Schwelle zu warten, wo sich zwei Arten von wissenden Wesen in einer Art psychotherapeutischer Sitzung treffen […]

Nohlab

Journey
JOURNEY is a 4 min. immersive audiovisual experience, telling the story of photons, primary elements of light, from the moment they approach the eye until the brain reconstructs them into perceivable forms. Our journey begins with the formation of photons in blank space, the colored photons approach the eye and we find ourselves in the capillary structure of Iris, the first layer of the eye. Next stop for the light particles is the Lens, which has a more crystalline form. We find ourselves in a refractive and fractalized environment. With an accelerating pace, we move towards a structure of many capillaries, aka optic nerves, gradually becoming thinner and eventually transmitting light particles towards neurons.

Sally Golding

Your double my double our ghost
The installation acts a space for the consideration of intimacy and meditation– both alone and with others that may share the space – through the merging of the viewer’s own reflections articulated through a composition of shifting light and emerging sounds which fill an otherwise dark chamber. Functioning similarly to the classic funfair mirror– the flexible silver two-way mirror sheeting forming an ethereal hanging centrepiece– the work invites the viewer to consider representations of themselves which appear distorted and transient, and which merge with those around them to form ‘new presences’. In this sense the viewer may see themselves multiplied or doubled with another viewer, or find themselves alone in a rare moment of literal reflection providing a contemplative space or eliciting a hallucinatory fantasy bringing forth ideas in neuroscience around the Self and Other.

Studio A N F

Computer Visions 2
After more decades of trying to construct an apparatus that can think, we may be finally witnessing the fruits of those efforts: machines that know. That is to say, not only machines that can measure and look up information, but ones that seem to have a qualitative understanding of the world. A neural network trained on faces does not only know what a human face looks like, it has a sense of what a face is. Although the algorithms that produce such para-neuronal formations are relatively simple, we do not fully understand how they work. A variety of research labs have also been successfully training such nets on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of living brains, enabling them to effectively extract images, concepts, thoughts from a person’s mind. This is where the inflection likely happens, as a double one: a technology whose workings are not well understood, qualitatively analyzing an equally unclear natural formation with a degree of success. Andreas N. Fischer’s work Computer Visions II seems to be waiting just beyond this cusp, where two kinds of knowing beings meet in a psychotherapeutic session of sorts[…]

Karen Lancel and Hermen Maat

Kissing Data Symphony
Intimacy Data Symphony is a poetic ritual for intimate experience of Kissing and Caressing each other faces, multi-sensory and socially shared in public space of merging realities. In live experiments with Multi-Brain BCI E.E.G. head-sets, visitors are invited as Kissers (or Caressers) and Spectators. Brain activity of people kissing and caressing is measured and visualized in streaming E.E.G. data, real-time circling around them in a floor projection. Simultaneously, the Spectators brain waves are measured, their neurons mirroring activity of intimate kissing and caressing movements, resonating in their imagination. The Spectators brain activity data are interwoven in the data-visualization. Brain activity of all participants, mirroring each others emotional expressions and movements, in interpersonal and aesthetic ways, co-create an immersive visual, Reflexive Datascape.

localStyle (Marlena Novak & Jay Alan Yim) in collaboration with Malcolm MacIver

Scale
‘scale’ is an interspecies art project: an audience-interactive installation that involves nocturnal electric fish from the Amazon River Basin. Twelve different species of these fish comprise a choir whose sonified electrical fields provide the source tones for an immersive audiovisual environment. The fish are housed in individual tanks configured in a custom-built sculptural arc of aluminum frames placed around a central podium. The electrical field from each fish is translated into sound, and is thus heard — unprocessed or with digital effects added, with immediate control over volume via a touchscreen panel — through a 12-channel surround sound system, and with LED arrays under each tank for visual feedback. All software is custom-designed. Audience members interact as deejays with the system. Amongst the goals of the project is our desire to foster wider public awareness of these remarkable creatures, their importance to the field of neurological research, and the fragility of their native ecosystem.The project leaders comprise visual/conceptual artist Marlena Novak, composer/sound designer Jay Alan Yim, and neural engineer Malcolm MacIver. MacIver’s research focuses on sensory processing and locomotion in electric fish and translating this research into bio-inspired technologies for sensing and underwater propulsion through advanced fish robots. Novak and Yim, collaborating as ‘localStyle’, make intermedia works that explore perceptual themes, addressing both physical and psychological thresholds in the context of behavior, society/politics, and aesthetics.

Albert Omoss

Undercurrents

“Mostly the fact that I AM a human body. We can live our lives buried in complex abstraction, or in virtual reality, but you can’t separate your consciousness from the fragility of your physical form. Many of my own fears and anxieties revolve around that realization. I would probably say my pieces involving the human body are a kind of self prescribed therapy to deal with my neurosis”.Albert Omoss

Christoph De Boeck

Staalhemel

The intimate topography of the brain is laid out across a grid of 80 steel ceiling tiles as a spatialized form of tapping. The visitor can experience the dynamics of his cognitive self by fitting a wireless EEG interface on his head, that allows him to walk under the acoustic representation of his own brain waves.The accumulating resonances of impacted steel sheets generates penetrating overtones. The spatial distribution of impact and the overlapping of reverberations create a very physical soundspace to house an intangible stream of consciousness.‘Staalhemel’ (‘steel sky’, 2009) articulates the contradictory relationship we entertain with our own nervous system. Neurological feedback makes that the cognitive focus is repeatedly interrupted by the representation of this focus. Concentrated thinking attempts to portray itself in a space that is reshaped by thinking itself nearly every split second.

iris van herpen

sensory seas
runway LOOK 08

“The first threads of inspiration came from the Spanish neuroanatomist Ramón y Cajal. He wanted to uncover something that no one had yet understood.
Sensory seas’ holds a microscope over the indelible nuances between the anthropology of a marine organism, to the role of dendrites and synapses delivering infinite signals throughout our bodies. It enchants the attention of how two processes of torrential messaging exist in an uninterrupted state of flux. The collection consists 21 silhouettes that illustrate a portrait of liquid labyrinths, where dresses spill onto the floor in elegant train and pigments gather in cloudedpools of blues and lilac, leaking into one another like marble.” Joanna Klein

Behnaz Farahi

Synapse
Synapse is a 3D-printed helmet which moves and illuminates according to brain activity[…] The main intention of this project is to explore the possibilities of multi-material 3D printing in order to produce a shape-changing structure around the body as a second skin. Additionally, the project seeks to explore direct control of the movement with neural commands from the brain so that we can effectively control the environment around us through our thoughts. The environment therefore becomes an extension of our bodies. This project aims to play with the intimacy of our bodies and the environment to the point that the distinction between them becomes blurred, as both have ‘become’ a single entity. The helmet motion is controlled by the Eletroencephalography (EEG) of the brain. A Neurosky’s EEG chip and Mindflex headset have been modified and redesigned in order to create a seamless blend between technology and design.

WOW inc

Neuro Surge
Measuring about 9 meters in height, the work pierces through the atrium of the ‘shiseido’ ginza building from the first to the second floor and creates an unprecedented display of light with the use of new advanced fibers. WOW inc. attached 150 fibers with a .9 millimeter diameter to a laser module. The laser module transmits light through the fibers, which can be controlled by touch. The interactive work visualizes the complex transmission of sensory nerves and information into a dynamic light show.

Sitraka Rakotoniaina

Time Conditioning
No seu projeto, tempo é reduzido a um parâmetro que pode ser modulável enquanto dissocia o cérebro do resto da experiência corporal. Em “Time Conditioning”, Raktoniaina cria uma prótese para treinar o braço a operar à velocidade de uma mosca. Enquanto isso supõe uma aceleração dos reflexos, o resultado é o oposto, e os neurônios musculares têm uma experiência em slow motion, fazendo com que corpo e mente experienciem o tempo em dois intervalos diferentes.

Greg Dunn and Brian Edward

Self-Reflected

Dr. Greg Dunn (artist and neuroscientist) and Dr. Brian Edwards (artist and applied physicist) created Self Reflected to elucidate the nature of human consciousness, bridging the connection between the mysterious three pound macroscopic brain and the microscopic behavior of neurons. Self Reflected offers an unprecedented insight of the brain into itself, revealing through a technique called reflective microetching the enormous scope of beautiful and delicately balanced neural choreographies designed to reflect what is occurring in our own minds as we observe this work of art. Self Reflected was created to remind us that the most marvelous machine in the known universe is at the core of our being and is the root of our shared humanity.

bernd hopfengaertner

BELIEF SYSTEMS
Facial micro expressions last less than a second and are almost impossible to control. They are hard wired to the emotional activity in the brain which can be easily captured using specially developed technological devices. Free will is now in question as the science exposes decision-making as an emotional process rather than a rational one. This ability to read emotions technologically result in a society obsessed with their emotional reactions. Emotions, convictions and beliefs which usually remain hidden, now become a public matter. “Belief systems” is a video scenario about a society that responds to the challenges of modern neuroscience by embracing these technological possibilities to read, evaluate and alter peoples behaviours and emotions.

Greg Dunn

brain art
To capture their strikingly chaotic and spontaneous forms, the neurons in Self Reflected are painted using a technique wherein ink is blown around on a canvas using jets of air. The resulting ink splatters naturally form fractal like neural patterns, and although the artist learns to control the general boundaries of the technique it remains at its heart a chaotic, abstract expressionist process.

GUY BEN-ARY, PHILIP GAMBLEN AND STEVE POTTER

Silent Barrage

Silent Barrage has a “biological brain” that telematically connects with its “body” in a way that is familiar to humans: the brain processes sense data that it receives, and then brain and body formulate expressions through movement and mark making. But this familiarity is hidden within a sophisticated conceptual and scientific framework that is gradually decoded by the viewer. The brain consists of a neural network of embryonic rat neurons, growing in a Petri dish in a lab in Atlanta, Georgia, which exhibits the uncontrolled activity of nerve tissue that is typical of cultured nerve cells. This neural network is connected to neural interfacing electrodes that write to and read from the neurons. The thirty-six robotic pole-shaped objects of the body, meanwhile, live in whatever exhibition space is their temporary home. They have sensors that detect the presence of viewers who come in. It is from this environment that data is transmitted over the Internet, to be read by the electrodes and thus to stimulate, train or calm parts of the brain, depending on which area of the neuronal net has been addressed.

Madi Boyd

the Point of Perception
Produced in collaboration with neuroscientists at UCL, Beau Lotto and Mark Lythgoe, this work is art and science; we intend it as an experiment in the gallery. It manifests as an immersive environment consisting of a ‘screen’ which is a large gridded space of uncertainty and projected film.The project came about after I undertook a period of research of the human visual system and neuroesthetics and set up a collaboration with Professor Mark Lythgoe and Dr Beau Lotto at UCL.

janaina mello landini

ciclotrama
the artworks have gone through 17 different iterations since 2010, each involving some form of ropes that seem to branch through the air and splay onto surfaces like fractals or a network of neurons.

Igor Siwanowicz

Devil’s Flower Mantis
“Ten years ago I decided to change my field of research to one that is more in tune with my naturalist’s interests. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. Insects, having a relatively simple and hence easier to study, nervous system, are commonly used as models, the premise being that on the most basic level of relatively simple neuronal networks we have a lot in common. It was my extracurricular expertise in invertebrate anatomy and macro photography that made the transition possible.”

David Cronenberg

ديفيد كروننبرغ
大卫·柯南伯格
데이비드 크로넨버그
דיוויד קרוננברג
デビッド·クローネンバーグ
ДЭВИД КРОНЕНБЕРГ
eXistenZ
cinema

David Cronenberg’s eXistenZ is a creepily downbeat near-future techie thriller, starring Jennifer Jason Leigh as Allegra Geller, the super-cool games designer, who has just unveiled “eXistenZ”, a game you plug directly into your neuro-system and play in the infinite cyberspace of your mind.

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

purkinje neuron from the human cerebellum
Ramón y Cajal’s theory described how information flowed through the brain. Neurons were individual units that talked to one another directionally, sending information from long appendages called axons to branchlike dendrites, over the gaps between them.
He couldn’t see these gaps in his microscope, but he called them synapses, and said that if we think, learn and form memories in the brain then that itty-bitty space was most likely the location where we do it. This challenged the belief at the time that information diffused in all directions over a meshwork of neurons.

JILL SCOTT

Electric retina
The Electric Retina is a “neuromedia” sculpture which combines retinal research with interactive media art and metaphorical associations in order to explore the complexity of visual perception. Based on her residency in Neurobiology at the Institute of Zoology, University of Zurich, Scott gained a deeper insight into the genetic control of visual system development and function by analysis of zebra fish mutants, which are used as the main phenotypes for human eye disease research.

Timothy Lee

gookeyes
Timothy graduated, with high honors, from Wesleyan University, having majored in Neuroscience and Behavior, Studio Art (with a concentration in drawing), and Biology (Developmental). Originally intending on attending medical school after graduation in hopes of becoming a physician, Timothy quickly dropped this ambition upon realizing his true passions, which lay in art. However, the impression from years of scientific training is clearly visible in the way he approaches his artwork.

ROXY PAINE

روكسي باين
רוקסי פיין
ロキシー·パイネ
록시 페인
inversion

Paine calls the series “Dendroids,” a name that combines dendron, Greek for “tree”, and “oid,” a suffix meaning “form.” But the title is more nuanced. Other words derived from dendron refer to branching systems, and in zoology “oid” denotes a creature belonging to a higher level of taxonomy. So “Dendroids” aren’t just tree forms, but allusions to branching structures from neurons to rivers to genealogical charts. And a viewer may be moved to consider the congruencies among such disparate but related systems.

Anne Rochat

安·罗切特
Messalina

“… Messalina, die dritte Frau des römischen Kaisers Claudius, erinnerte sich noch immer an ihr skandalöses Verhalten. Anne Rochat, die ein Kleid aus Glasschalen trägt, baumelt an den beiden Ringen, die an der Decke befestigt sind. Neurotisch dreht sie sich um und versucht, den Appetit auf Luxus, den Durst nach Vergnügen und den festlichen Geist von Lucre zu symbolisieren. Ihre sehr duchampianische Idee ist es, sie in eine Versammlung von Junggesellen zu verwandeln, während die Braut sich allmählich nackt auszieht, während die Glasschalen brechen und zu Boden fallen… “

Janaina Mello and Daniel Landini

ciclotrama 10

Das in Brasilien lebende Künstlerduo Janaina Mello und Daniel Landini von Mello + Landini schaffen baumartige Installationen mit ungedrehten Seilen, die an den Wänden der Galerien befestigt sind. Die Kunstwerke mit dem Titel Ciclotramas haben seit 2010 17 verschiedene Iterationen durchlaufen, von denen jede eine Form von Seilen enthält, die sich durch die Luft zu verzweigen scheinen und sich auf Oberflächen wie Fraktalen oder einem Netzwerk von Neuronen ausbreiten. Die Künstler sagen, dass sie daran interessiert sind, Metaphern zu schaffen, die organische Strukturen umgeben, die sowohl aus miteinander verbundenen als auch unabhängigen Teilen bestehen, sowie den Lauf der Zeit und die „Choreografie von ineinander verschlungenen Linien“.

BEN JACK

Elucidating Feedback
File Festival

The more we look, the more we see, the more we see the more we look. “Elucidating feedback” is a brain-controlled installation about the creativity inherent in the act of observation. The more attention that is paid to the installation, the more order is reflected in the video and audio. The idea is that we create the finer details of our experience through the act of being attentive. The more we observe our environment, the more we discover, and the result of this active process is the creation of the rich details of our experience. The project uses neuro feedback supplied through interaction between the user and a BCI (brain-computer interface) device. The mindset (the BCI device) reads your brainwaves and this alters how the installation creates form from static. The more attention is paid, the more pattern is formed; as less attention is paid, the pattern breaks back into static. This is intended to form a feedback loop between the user’s attention and the subject of their attention (the projected patterns). The audio-visual aspect of the installation produces pattern, order and detail in direct proportion to the attention that the user is currently paying. If the user is in a state where the mind is freely wandering and not focused on any one thing, the patterns decay into static, bringing the installation back to a state of stasis.

GREGORY BARSAMIAN

Lather
Gregory Barsamians Arbeit existiert in einer tiefen Konfrontation mit der Realität. Theatralisch in dem Sinne, dass es in einem abgedunkelten Raum vor einem passiv engagierten Publikum stattfindet, verlässt sich seine Skulptur fast vollständig auf den Betrachter, denn was der Betrachter sieht, scheinbar vollständig präsent und greifbar, ist tatsächlich nicht da. Diese konstruierten Illusionen sind Produkte der unbewussten Reaktion des Betrachters und erzeugen einen Konflikt zwischen sensorischer Information und Logik, eine Konfrontation, die auf einen Traumzustand hindeutet. Barsamian hat mithilfe von Animationen einen Weg gefunden, Bilder sichtbar zu machen, die normalerweise im Unterbewusstsein verborgen sind – Bilder, die normalerweise nur während des Träumens zugänglich sind. Seine Arbeit ist seltsamerweise solipsistisch und impliziert für den Betrachter, dass nichts existiert und dass selbst wenn etwas existiert, nichts darüber bekannt sein kann. Vielleicht weil Barsamian kein ausgebildeter Künstler ist (sein Abschluss ist in Philosophie), ist er besonders empfänglich für Erweiterungen Definitionen des Kunstobjekts. Dies hat es ihm ermöglicht, über die Grenzen von Präsentations- und Themengenres hinaus zu konzipieren. Seine Arbeit ist geprägt von der Jungschen Psychologie, Traumtheorien aller Art und neueren Forschungen zur Neurologie des Träumens. Er interessiert sich besonders für Unterschiede zwischen dem Bewusstsein und dem Unterbewusstsein. Wie er kürzlich in einer Erklärung betonte: „Bewusstsein… ist auf eine ziemlich langsame (15 bis 20 Bit pro Sekunde), trottende Art und Weise zu bemerkenswerten Taten der Vernunft fähig… die Sinne bringen 20 Millionen Bit Information pro Sekunde ein. Unser Verstand verarbeitet und handelt tatsächlich auf eine Weise, die dem Bewusstsein völlig unbekannt ist. Im Unterbewusstsein erleben wir Dinge nicht durch die Grenzen des Bewusstseins, sondern durch den vollen Strom, der uns von allen Sinnen gebracht wird. “

Michael Najjar

史上第一位進入太空的藝術家
laokoon, from the work series “bionic angel”

„Bionischer Engel“ Die Arbeitsreihe „Bionischer Engel“ geht von der zukünftigen Transformation und technologischen Kontrolle der menschlichen Evolution aus. Die rasante Entwicklung auf dem Gebiet der sogenannten „g-r-i-n-Technologien“ (Genetik, Robotik, Information und Nanotechnologie) verändert unseren Körper, Geist, Erinnerungen und Identitäten, wirkt sich aber auch auf unsere Nachkommen aus. Diese Technologien laufen alle zusammen, um die menschliche Leistung zu verbessern. Durch die pränatale genetische Bestimmung können Kinder nach Plan gebaut werden. Klonkörper werden zu Aufbewahrungsorten für Ersatzorgane, während durch Manipulation der Atomstruktur neue Körper entstehen, die die alten in Bezug auf Robustheit, Elastizität und Haltbarkeit weit übertreffen. Die neuen Karosserien sind an die Bedürfnisse der Hochgeschwindigkeitsdatenautobahn angepasst. Diese Entwicklungen, die auf genetischen Algorithmen und neuronalen Netzwerken basieren, ermöglichen es nun, die biologische Evolution zu steuern. Sie eröffnen dem Menschen den Weg zu einer neuen und überlegenen Existenzform.