DNA (genes)

A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains genetic information and can influence the phenotype of an organism. Within a gene, the sequence of bases along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which then defines one or more protein sequences. The relationship between the nucleotide sequences of genes and the amino-acid sequences of proteins is determined by the rules of translation, known collectively as the genetic code. The genetic code consists of three-letter ‘words’ called codons formed from a sequence of three nucleotides.

One Life Remains: André Berlemont, Kevin Lesur, Brice Roy & Franck Weber

Inspired by Michel Foucault’s work, Les disciplines du rectangle is a videogame proposition about the nature of rules and norms at the digital age. If society provides models of accomplishment we are supposed to fit inside, then the rectangle is the pure abstraction of this idea. The geometrical shape works as a symbol of the very nature of normativity, blind to individual differences. The rectangle, existing only on the screen, reveals how digital technologies can in some ways become the new location for this normativity and the ambivalent results of their intangible and invisible nature. Besides, the installation offers an occasion to think about the way games can become manipulation tools. The fact that in the end, players act as if they were piloted by the rectangle (an inversion of the traditional relationship between player and avatar) gives an aesthetical highlight to this.


Inspirado en el trabajo de Michel Foucault, Les disciplines du rectangle es una propuesta de videojuego sobre la naturaleza de las reglas y normas en la era digital. Si la sociedad proporciona modelos de realización en los que se supone que encajamos, entonces el rectángulo es la pura abstracción de esta idea. La forma geométrica funciona como símbolo de la naturaleza misma de la normatividad, ciega a las diferencias individuales. El rectángulo, que existe solo en la pantalla, revela cómo las tecnologías digitales pueden convertirse de alguna manera en la nueva ubicación de esta normatividad y los resultados ambivalentes de su naturaleza intangible e invisible. Además, la instalación ofrece la oportunidad de pensar en cómo los juegos pueden convertirse en herramientas de manipulación. El hecho de que, al final, los jugadores actúen como si fueran piloteados por el rectángulo (una inversión de la relación tradicional entre jugador y avatar) le da un toque estético a esto.



Morphogenetic Creations
Created by a mathematician, digital artist and Emmy award winning supervisor of computer generated effects – Andy Lomas, Morphogenetic Creations is a collection of works that explore the nature of complex forms that can be produced by digital simulation of growth systems. These pieces start with a simple initial form which is incrementally developed over time by adding iterative layers of complexity to the structure.The aim is to create structures emergently: exploring generic similarities between many different forms in nature rather than recreating any particular organism. In the process he is exploring universal archetypal forms that can come from growth processes rather than top-down externally engineered design.Programmed using C++ with CUDA, the series use a system of growth by deposition: small particles of matter are repeatedly deposited onto a growing structure to build incrementally over time. Rules are used to determine how new particles are created, and how they move before being deposited. Small changes to these rules can have dramatic effects on the final structure, in effect changing the environment in which the form is grown. To create these works, Andy uses the GPU as a compute device rather than as a display device. All the data is held in memory on the GPU and various kernel functions are called to do things like apply forces to the cells, make cells split, and to render the cells using ray-tracing. The simulations and rendering for each of the different animated structures within this piece take about 12 hours to run, Andy explains. By the end of the simulations there are over 50,000,000 cells in each structure.The Cellular Forms use a more biological model, representing a simplified system of cellular growth. Structures are created out of interconnected cells, with rules for the forces between cells, as well as rules for how cells accumulate internal nutrients. When the nutrient level in a cell exceeds a given threshold the cell splits into two, with both the parent and daughter cells reconnecting to their immediate neighbours. Many different complex organic structures are seen to arise from subtle variations on these rules, creating forms with strong reminiscences of plants, corals, internal organs and micro-organisms.


What hath God wrought?
The title of the installation is a line from the Book of Numbers in early modern English. It was the first message transmitted by telegraph in 1844, the first communication technology on the basis of electricity and binary coding. The artwork is fed by the 100 most used words in Thomas More’s book ‘Utopia’, feeding the correspondence between a series of telegraphs. The telegraphs translate the words into sound and light. Written rolls of paper drift to the floor. Slowly but surely, mistakes slip into the closed system and the meaning of the words alters. The Morse orchestra deals with the rationalism of the Renaissance and its belief in progress and posits by contrast an aesthetic of a self-regulating system in which the fault rules and defect becomes beauty.

Liam Young

In the robot skies
In the Robot Skies is the world’s first narrative shot entirely through autonomous drones. In collaboration with the Embedded and Artificially intelligent Vision Lab in Belgium the film has evolved in the context of their experiments with specially developed camera drones each programmed with their own cinematic rules and behaviours. The film explores the drone as a cultural object, not just as a new instrument of visual story telling but also as the catalyst for a new collection of urban sub cultures. In the way the New York subway car of the 80’s gave birth to a youth culture of wild style graffiti and hip hop the age of ubiquitous drones as smart city infrastructure will create a new network of surveillance activists and drone hackers. From the eyes of the drones we see two teenagers each held by police order within the digital confines of their own council estate tower block in London. A network of drones survey the council estates, as a roving flock off cctv cameras and our two characters are kept apart by this autonomous aerial infrastructure.

Studio TheGreenEyl

»Appeel« is a game without rules. It starts with a wall that is covered all over with a signal red adhesive foil. The foil consists of thousands of circular stickers pre-cut in a narrow grid that wait to be pulled off and put in a new order by the visitors. The stickers, and its white negative on the wall, form, similarly to binary coded pixels, ornaments, news and pictures – on the original wall and far beyond: they move to adjoining rooms, onto faces and even leave the city.


Blueprint embraces the relationship and parallels between art and science, creating compositions through the mathematical principles of logic that underpin life. Exploring analogies between DNA and computer code, UVA have created the Blueprint series; works that pair genetics and code as the blueprints of artificial and natural systems. As the work slowly changes over time, patterns fluctuate between varying degrees of complexity. Blueprint uses the basic concepts of evolution to create an ever-transitioning image. With cells literally transferring their genes to their adjoining others, colour flows like paint across the canvas. Drawing up a unique colourful composition every minute, Blueprint presents the unlimited outcome that results from a single algorithm; a single set of rules.


Robotics is the art and commerce of robots, their design, manufacture, application, and practical use. Robots will soon be everywhere, in our home and at work. They will change the way we live. This will raise many philosophical, social, and political questions that will have to be answered. In science fiction, robots become so intelligent that they decide to take over the world because humans are deemed inferior. In real life, however, they might not choose to do that. Robots might follow rules such as Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics, that will prevent them from doing so. When the Singularity happens, robots will be indistinguishable from human beings and some people may become Cyborgs: half man and half machine.

Raven Kwok

“A collaboration with Symmetry Labs at Gray Area Foundation for the Arts in San Francisco. Derivatives of multiple generative rules I designed in the past were adapted to an interactive LED floor. The video demo includes 6 visual sets and transitions in between. Set 01 is an adaption of 1DFBD, which was also used in a couple of projection mapping tests in 2014. Set 03 is derived from an untitled turbulence piece created in 2014 as well. Similar to Set 03, all agents in Set 04 are driven by 3D Perlin Noise flow field. However, instead of being an emitter spawning agents, each dot functions as an attractor intervening in the flow, same way as it did in 2BCD.”Raven Kwok

Michael Sedbon

Here are 2 artificial ecosystems sharing a light source. Access to this light source is granted through a market. Each colony of photosynthetic bacterias can claim access to light thanks to credits earned for their oxygen production. The rules driving the market are optimized through a genetic algorithm. This artificial intelligence is testing different populations of financial systems on these 2 sets of Cyanobacteria. Like so, the photosynthetic cells and the computer are experimenting with different political systems granting access to this resource. The system oscillates between collaborative and competitive states. The genetic algorithm pictures the rules of these proto-societies as genes. By breeding populations of societies, new generations of markets arise. Like so, the sum of microscopic series of events determines the status of the system at a macroscopic scale.


Reality is not Always Probable
‘Reality is not Always Probable’ is constructed from tens of thousands of colourful dice and is generated, line by line, by manually emulating the rules of a simple computer binary program. Its title references a quote by Jorge Luis Borges and men’s disquiet towards a lack of controllable or predictable events and the belief that complete knowledge is impossible.

Ricardo Barreto and Raquel Fukuda

Chess Auto-Creative (Self-Replicating )
‘Chess Auto-Creative (CHEAC)’, takes the form of a cube where each face corresponds to an 8 x 8 chessboard. The six chessboards can also be arranged in a line to make them easier to see. There are 16 white pieces and 16 black pieces on each of the chessboards, made up of elements such as: kings, queens, bishops, knights, castles and pawns, each of which moves according to the rules of the game. However, instead of the pieces being arranged as normal, they are first set out in patterns where each element is repeated […]Each time a piece is moved to a new position, symmetrically or asymmetrically, a new variation of proto-chess is produced – in other words, a new game emerges. All games generated in this way are, in principle, variations of proto-chess – including the official chess game itself. This means that ‘Chess Auto-Creative’ is not a variant of the official chess game, but its origin.


George Vantongerloo

“Vantongerloo, who ascribes to the abstract language of form after 1917, applies himself to Abstract Art in order to get control of rules by which he develops an interest in geometrical relationships and algebraic formulas. In addition to his artistic practice, Vantongerloo also writes theoretical work about his research. Primarily after the publication of his pamphlet L’Art et son Avenir in 1924, he creates new impulses for geometric abstraction with his writings. In this way, for example, he subjects three neo-plastic works of Piet Mondriaan (1872 – 1944) to an analysis in the French publication Vouloir. In this way he opens up the way for his own ‘mathematical’ abstraction.” Sergio Servellón

mandelbrot set

mandelbrot set (zooming in)

The Mandelbrot set shows more intricate detail the closer one looks or magnifies the image, usually called “zooming in”. The following example of an image sequence zooming to a selected c value gives an impression of the infinite richness of different geometrical structures and explains some of their typical rules. The magnification of the last image relative to the first one is about 1010 to 1. Relating to an ordinary monitor, it represents a section of a Mandelbrot set with a diameter of 4 million kilometers. Its border would show an astronomical number of different fractal structures.


File Festival
MOVE is an interactive installation divided into six distinct modules, JUMP, AVOID, CHASE, THROW, HIDE and COLLECT. Each module offers a single-user interaction, based on a verb corresponding to the action the participant is invited to perform. Each verb corresponds to a common procedure acted out by avatars during videogame play. Each module offers an interaction with abstracted shapes (circles, rectangles) behaving according to simplified rules of physics (collision, friction). Each module is color-coded with consistency, where the color red is used for the graphical element that poses the core challenge. Each module increases difficulty in a similar linear manner.What makes MOVE unusual is that unlike most computer vision or sensor based games like Eye-toy or Dance Dance Revolution, the participant IS the avatar, he is not seeing a representation of herself or an indirect result of her actions on a separate screen but instead interacts directly with the projected graphical constituents of the game. Because those graphical elements are non-representational they do not allow for a projection in a fictional space. The combination of abstracted shapes and direct interaction reinforces in the player the focus on the action itself (JUMP, AVOID, CHASE, THROW, HIDE or COLLECT) instead of an ulterior goal.

Pierre Debusschere

Pierre Debusschere utilizes innovative technologies to create high impact visuals that break the rules and keeps us guessing every step of the way.

Akram Khan

Inspired by Akram Khan’s early training in the Indian classical dance form Kathak, and the hybrid language that organically emerged when Akram’s kathak training encountered contemporary dance in his teens, a vision began to form, fuelled by a desire to learn and create through collaboration with the very best people across all the disciplines in the arts.

The rules were simple: take risks, think big and daring, explore the unfamiliar, avoid compromise and tell stories through dance that are compelling and relevant, with artistic integrity.


Сара Шнайдер/
שניידר שרה
사라 슈나이더
سارة شنايدر
Centro de Rehabilitacion en Austria

“The project developes an architecture that uses rules of natural growth and connects both growth and ornament, with a landscape environment, topologically and calligraphically. The ornament creates a symbiotic relationship with the existing environment by framing existing topographic features and at the same time giving a feedback to the landscape by creating topographical irregularities.”


Unspoiled by formal computer graphics training, ZEITGUISED have been pushing their own rules onto computer aided art by creating a dense universe parallel to motion graphics, drawing heavily from fashion photography, sculpture, installation and architectural set design.


“I move, reverse, manipulate the rules so that they cannot integrate in any frame. My measure is dynamic, it always ties and unties, endlessly exceeding itself. I overflow, going past the initial measure. The resulting drift becomes my new measure and imposes on me another frame, a palette with rigid outlines. I am confronted to strict and solid delimitations. One more time bored of being subjected to the measure.”


‘I like to challenge my obsessions by imposing new rules on them,’ he says. The easy way is never an option: ‘I like things difficult, so as to be able to enjoy it afterwards and to be able to say that it was all worthwhile.’
Which is why, after 25 years of Ultima Vez, Vandekeybus still loves creating performances. ‘Sometimes I can’t face the start of the process. There’s always that stress and sleepless nights with five ideas running around in my head at the same time, but then the production’s own world takes shape and it instantly becomes captivating and fun again.’


Inner Fashion
Inner Fashion questions the codes, rules and production technic of fashion. The human body is seen as a fluid, inflatable and mobile structure in which the tension of fabric remplace muscles. Each piece of cloth are made of 2 layers: an inner layer, XXS, highly strechable and an outer layer, XL and none strechable. Both layer are dressed on a zeppelin shaped balloon representing the human body. As the balloon fills up with air, the fabric of the inner layer stretches out and both fabric are touching each other.


ويلي دورنر
Вилли Дорнер
photographer LISA RASTL

“Bodies in urban spaces” is a temporarily intervention in diversified urban architectonical environment. The intention of “bodies in urban spaces” is to point out the urban functional structure and to uncover the restricted movement possibilities and behaviour as well as rules and limitations.

Ricardo Barreto and Raquel Fukuda

The almost ideal game

Gilles Deleuze about the Ideal Game: we are surprised when he postulates as the first rule: “there is no rule”. Soon, all the other games that have some rule are, for him, partial. That is, products of the ideal game.

A game where there are no rules implies a completely free game creatively. The question to be raised is whether there is a grey region between the ideal game and the partial games, so that the rules established in the partial games could be suspended. This way we could unpartialise the games bringing them closer to the ideal game or some kind of almost ideal game.
If we take the rules of any game, it means it stops to work immediately, except in the ideal game. Therefore, the key question is: how to suspend the rule of a game (Dice games) so that it can continue to work?


Inge Mahn

Balancing Towers

“Inge Mahn’s sculptures are not created in isolation, but evolve within their specific spatial and situational contexts. They are autonomous only in part, since they react to preexisting architectonic and social structures, assume a stance that corresponds to them, advance objections, stir up our ideas about objects, spaces and rules. This body of work is an ongoing violation of the rules, it provides the impetus for a process of rethinking, reinterpretation, rebuilding. Outwardly this is manifested in the constant white of the works: here everything is being continually reshaped, remodeled, transformed.”


리시 엘
Lissy Laricchia aka Lissy Elle is a Canadian photographer who creates magical, paused in motion surreal photos. She plays with the subject, likes to change the rules of gravity and use smart props, location and digital manipulation. Her dreamy photographs are certainly pleasing on the eye, taking you off somewhere for a moment but the world within these images has also an air of mystery


רמונד קנה
Раймонд Кено
Cent mille Milliards de poèmes
Since its arrival (the Oulipo), the rules of the group were set out as follows: “We define potential literature as the search for new forms and structures that can be used by writers in the way they will most like.” “Potential” refers to something that exists in power in literature, that is, that is found within language and that has not necessarily been explored. The favorite tool for study and production is the contrainte, an arbitrary formal restriction that can create new procedures, new forms and literary structures that can generate poems, novels, texts. Over the years, dozens of different contraintes have been explored, from those somehow related to the riddle, such as the palindrome, the acrostic, the lipogram, of which the playful aspect has certainly not been underestimated, with forms more directly related to the codes of exact sciences, such as combinatorial calculus, set theory or graph theory. Among the numerous definitions of the Oulipo provided by the members themselves, one is very elegant and significant: “An Oulipiano is a mouse that builds the labyrinth from which it is proposed to come out later”. Queneau often explained that some of his works might seem simple pastimes, simple jeux d’esprit (mind games), but he remembered that topology or number theory also arose, at least in part, from what was once called “funny mathematics“.


Broken Rules
Secrets of Rætikon


نوفا جيانغ
Ideogenetic Machine
“Ideogenetic Machine” is an interactive installation that incorporates portraits of participants into an algorithmically generated comic book. A camera captures the portrait live while an algorithm transforms the photographic image into a “line drawing”. Face detection is utilized to insert-code generated blank speech bubbles into the narrative. The software creates never repeating compositions using a set of rules that approximate the compositional decisions made by a human comic book author. The comic is projected live, and consists of the algorithmically processed portraits as well as randomly chosen story elements from a database of drawings. The story elements are drawn by the artist, mostly illustrating speculative narratives based on current news and events. A participant can email him or herself the finished comic as a PDF file.



non-linear algorithms

Dextro writes ‘non-linear code’ drawing inspiration from nature. The results are non-fractal or random programs that iterate without change, with equal rules for all objects. Most of the scripts rely on trigonometry and could be seen as sets of wave generators interacting with one another. Some of these pieces take years to develop but the code is usually short but complex.


Interactive audiovisual dance performance
via highlike submit
Breakdown is an interactive audiovisual dance performance presented at the Ears Eyes and Feet event in the B. Iden Payne Theater, May 2014, UT Austin Texas.
Breakdown explores a 2 dimensional simulated world in which its physical rules are constantly being changed and manipulated by an external entity. An inhabitant of this world is in constant motion to adapt to its characteristics. He interacts with the physical rules and develops a dialogue with the entity who controls the forces. Eventually the inhabitant ends up breaking the world’s rules and release himself into a new world, a new dimension.


Rules of Six


emerging colorspace
Julian Adenauer and Michael Haas
Emerging Colorspace was a robotic drawing installation, realized by the Berlin based duo of artists, designers and inventors Julian Adenauer and Michael Haas, aka Sonice Development, as part of the Red Never Follows exhibition the Saatchi Gallery in London last summer. A new version of the studio’s Vertwalker, a machine with the ability to move on vertical surfaces, walking on buildings, and crawling on interior walls. The machine autonomously applied paint to the wall using a marker, referencing the vertical streets in Minority Report, the flying cars in Bladerunner and 5th Element, or Spiderman, the Silver Surfer and the Green Goblin – just to name a few sources of inspiration that expressed the supernatural. Thousands of lines drawn with different colors gradually formed an increasingly dense colorspace that emerged during the more than 200 exhibition hours, while the wandering behavior of the machine followed simple algorithmic rules with random elements. The result was a web that constantly changed, and never looked the same, exploring new territories and the future in a way ordinary mortals can’t.


Rules of Six


리시 엘
Lissy Laricchia aka Lissy Elle is a Canadian photographer who creates magical, paused in motion surreal photos. She plays with the subject, likes to change the rules of gravity and use smart props, location and digital manipulation. Her dreamy photographs are certainly pleasing on the eye, taking you off somewhere for a moment but the world within these images has also an air of mystery


리시 엘
Lissy Laricchia aka Lissy Elle is a Canadian photographer who creates magical, paused in motion surreal photos. She plays with the subject, likes to change the rules of gravity and use smart props, location and digital manipulation. Her dreamy photographs are certainly pleasing on the eye, taking you off somewhere for a moment but the world within these images has also an air of mystery


According to wikipedia, “emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions.” Thus “EMERGENT” was created using a particle system that was given basic rules of behavior, this is very similar to swarm algorithms using in architecture to create 3D forms. The application/particle system was created/simulated using Processing and OpenGL. The particle trails (locations over time) were imported to Maya using a MEL script and then animated to show their growth over time. I developed a (pretty complex) Processing application that helped me simulate the particle system (300 particles, with per particle interaction) in real-time.